GS Paper 2 UPSC mains Exam Detail are provided in this long analysis. it primarily contains following - 

Detail Syllabus Analysis

Recommended Books and other sources

Previous Year paper

This paper consist of total 20 Topic Which can be Divided into five major categories i.e

1. Indian Economy and Economic Development

2. Disaster Management

3. Environment and Economy

4. Internal Security

5. Science and Technology

Lets Individually Understand and Analyse the Syllabus

INDIAN ECONOMY and ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTS - It can be further Sub classified into two sepearate heading as follows. 


  1. Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

  2. Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.
    Government Budgeting.

  3. Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.

  4. Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

  5. Investment models.



  1. Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers

  2. Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System- objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing.

  3. Food processing and related industries in India- scope and significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management.

  4. Land reforms in India.


UPSC Mains GS 3 Paper Analysis 2019 - This years GS3 Paper can be considered easy (direct questions like UAPA, GST, Space Station) to moderate (impact of watershed management) expect some questions which were technical in nature (Cyberdome, contributions of Sir M.Visvesvaraya and Dr. M. S. Swaminathan), which may be difficult to recall in those stress filled 3 hours.

To solve easily- if daily newspaper reading was not missed, current affairs-based questions (space station, over-ground workers (OGWs)) were context-based i.e. if context was guessed write and answered accordingly, it will fetch good marks.

 Questions in Economy sections have moved from more generic to a specific type of questions like for e.g. 2019: direct and indirect taxes subsumed in GST, 2018 question on “important changes introduced in respect of the Long-term Capital Gain Tax – (LCGT) and Dividend Distribution Tax (DDT) in the Union Budget for 2018-2019.




Growth and Resource mobilization:

1.Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

2.Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.

Previous years question:


  1. It is argued that the strategy of inclusive growth is intended to meet the objectives of inclusiveness and sustainability together. Comment on this statement. (Answer in 250 words) 15 Marks


  1. How are the principles followed by the NITI Aayog different from those followed by the erstwhile Planning Commission in India? 2018


  1. Among several factors for India’s potential growth, savings rate is the most effective one. Do you agree? What are the other factors available for growth potential?         2017

  2. Account for the failure of manufacturing sector in achieving the goal of labour-intensive exports rather than capital-intensive exports. Suggest measures for more labour-intensive rather than capital-intensive exports. 2017

  3. What are the salient features of ‘inclusive growth’? Has India been experiencing such a growth process? Analyze and suggest measures for inclusive growth. 2017


  1. Pradhan Mantri Jan-Dhan Yojana (PMJDY) is necessary for bringing unbanked to the institutional finance fold. Do you agree with this for financial inclusion of the poorer section of the Indian society? Give arguments to justify your opinion.      2016

  2. Comment on the challenges for inclusive growth which include careless and useless manpower in the Indian context. Suggest measures to be taken for facing these challenges.        2016


  1. The nature of economic growth in India in described as jobless growth. Do you agree with this view? Give arguments in favour of your answer.    2015

  2. Craze for gold in Indians have led to a surge in import of gold in recent years and put pressure on balance of payments and external value of rupee. In view of this, examine the merits of Gold Monetization Scheme.  2015

  3. “Success of ‘Make in India’ programme depends on the success of ‘Skill India’ programme and radical labour reforms.” Discuss with logical arguments.            2015


  1. Capitalism has guided the world economy to unprecedented prosperity. However, it often encourages shortsightedness and contributes to wide disparities between the rich and the poor. In this light, would it be correct to believe and adopt capitalism driving inclusive growth in India? Discuss.            2014

  2. While we found India’s demographic dividend, we ignore the dropping rates of employability. What are we missing while doing so? Where will the jobs that India desperately needs come from? Explain.          2014


  1. With a consideration towards the strategy of inclusive growth, the new companies bill, 2013 has indirectly made CSR a mandatory obligation. Discuss the challenges expected in its implementation in right earnest. Also discuss other provisions in the bill and their implications.      2013


3.Government Budgeting.


Previous years question:


  1. Enumerate the indirect taxes which have been subsumed in the Goods and Services Tax (GST) in India. Also, comment on the revenue implications of the GST introduced in India since July 2017. (Answer in 150 words)

  2. Do you agree with the view that steady GDP growth and low inflation have left the Indian economy in good shape? Give reasons in support of your arguments. (Answer in 150 words) 10 Marks

  3. The public expenditure management is a challenge to the government of India in the context of budget making during the post-liberalization period. Clarify it. (Answer in 250 words) 15 Marks


  1. Comment on the important changes introduced in respect of the Long-term Capital Gains Tax (LCGT) and Dividend Distribution Tax (DDT) in the Union Budget for 2018-2019.  2018


  1. One of the intended objectives of Union Budget 2017-18 is to ‘transform, energize and clean India’. Analyse the measures proposed in the Budget 2017-18 to achieve the objective.       2017


  1. Women empowerment in India needs gender budgeting. What are the requirements and status of gender budgeting in the Indian context?        2016


  1. In what way could replacement of price subsidy with Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) change the scenario of subsidies in India? Discuss.      2015


  1. What are the reasons for introduction of Fiscal responsibility and Budget Management (FRBM) act, 2003? Discuss critically its salient features and their effectiveness.   2013

  2. What is meaning of the term tax-expenditure? Taking housing sector as an example, discuss how it influences budgetary policies of the government.            2013

  3. Discussion the rationale for introducing Good and services tax in India. Bring out critically the reasons for delay in roll out for its regime.  2013


4. Infrastructure: (Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.); and Investment models.


Previous years question



  1. With growing energy needs should India keep on expanding its nuclear energy programme? Discuss the facts and fears associated with nuclear energy.            2018

  2. Access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy is the sine qua non to achieve Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Comment on the progress made in India in this regard.     2018


  1. Examine the developments of Airports in India through Joint Ventures under Public-Private Partnership(PPP) model. What are the challenges faced by the authorities in this regard.  2017


  1. What are ‘Smart Cities? Examine their relevance for urban development in India. Will it increase rural-urban differences? Give arguments for Smart Villages’ in the light of PURA and RURBAN Mission.        2016

  2. Justify the need for FDI for the development of the Indian economy. Why there is gap between MOUs signed and actual FDIs? Suggest remedial steps to be taken for increasing actual FDIs in India.    2016


  1. There is a clear acknowledgement that Special Economic Zones (SEZs) are a tool of industrial development, manufacturing and exports. Recognizing this potential, the whole instrumentality of SEZs requires augmentation. Discuss the issues plaguing the success of SEZs with respect to taxation, governing laws and administration.        2015


  1. The right to fair compensation and transparency land acquisition, rehabilitation and resettlement act, 2013 has come into effect from 1 January 2014. What implication would it have on industrialisation and agriculture in India?       2014

  2. National urban transport policy emphasizes on moving people instead of moving vehicles. Discuss critically the success of various strategies of the government in this regard.  2014

  3. Explain how private public partnership agreements, in longer gestation infrastructure projects, can transfer unsuitable liabilities to the future. What arrangements need to be put in place to ensure that successive generations’ capacities are not compromised?    2014


  1. Adaptation of PPP model for infrastructure development of the country has not been free from criticism. Critically discuss the pros and cons of the model.  2013


5.Economy: Liberalization , Effects of Liberalisation on the economy; Changes in Industrial policy & their effects on industrial growth

Previous year Paper


  1. How would the recent phenomena of protectionism and currency manipulations in world trade affect macroeconomic stability of India? 2018


  1. “Industrial growth rate has lagged behind in the overall growth of Gross-Domestic-Product(GDP) in the post-reform period” Give reasons. How far the recent changes in Industrial Policy are capable of increasing the industrial growth rate?  2017


  1. How globalization has led to the reduction of employment in the formal sector of the Indian economy? Is increased informalization detrimental to the development of the country?    2016


  1. Normally countries shift from agriculture to industry and then later to services, but India shifted directly from agriculture to services. What are the reasons for the huge growth of services vis-a-vis industry in the country? Can India become a developed country without a strong industrial base?            2014

  2. Foreign direct investment in the defence sector is now said to be liberalised. What influence this is expected to have on Indian defence and economy in the short and long run?              2014


  1. Examine the impact of liberalization on companies owned by Indian. Are the competing with the MNCs satisfactorily?     2013

  2. Discuss the impact of FDI entry into multi-trade retail sector on supply chain management in commodity trade pattern of the economy.  2013

  3. Though India allowed foreign direct investment (FDI) in what is called multi brand retail through joint venture route in September 2012, the FDI even after a year, has not picket up. Discuss the reasons.        2013


AGRICULTURE - Food: Cropping-irrigation


Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and
irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers


Previous years question:


  1. Elaborate the impact of National Watershed Project in increasing agricultural production from water-stressed areas. (Answer in 150 words) 10 Marks

  2. How was India benefitted from the contributions of Sir M.Visvesvaraya and Dr. M. S. Swaminathan in the fields of water engineering and agricultural science respectively? (Answer in 150 words) 10 Marks


  1. Sikkim is the first ‘Organic State’ in India. What are the ecological and economical benefits of Organic State?       2018

  2. Assess the role of National Horticulture Mission (NHM) in boosting the production, productivity and income of horticulture farms. How far has it succeeded in increasing the income of farmers? 2018

  3. How has the emphasis on certain crops brought about changes in cropping patterns in recent past? Elaborate the emphasis on millets production and consumption.   2018


  1. What are the major reasons for declining rice and wheat yield in the cropping system? How crop diversification is helpful to stabilize the yield of the crop in the system?       2017


  1. What is water-use efficiency? Describe the role of micro-irrigation in increasing the water-use efficiency. 2016

  2. What is allelopathy? Discuss its role in major cropping systems of irrigated agriculture.   2016

  3. Given the vulnerability of Indian agriculture to vagaries of nature, discuss the need for crop insurance and bring out the salient features of the Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY)         2016


2.Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution

System- objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security;
Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing.


Previous years question:


  1. How far is Integrated Farming System (IFS) helpful in sustaining agricultural production? (Answer in 150 words) 10 Marks

  2. What are the reformative steps taken by the government to make food grain distribution system more effective? (Answer in 250 words) 15 Marks


  1. What do you mean by Minimum Support Price (MSP)? How will MSP rescue the farmers from the low income trap?        2018


  1. How do subsidies affect the cropping pattern, crop diversity and economy of farmers? What is the significance of crop insurance, minimum support price and food processing for small and marginal farmers?         2017


  1. “In the villages itself no form of credit organisation will be suitable except the cooperative society.” – All Indian rural credit survey. Discuss this statement in the background of agriculture finance in India. What constrain and challenges do financial institutions supplying agricultural finances? How can technology be used to better reach and serve rural clients?        2014


  1. Food security bill is expected to eliminate hunger and malnutrition in India. Critically discuss various apprehensions in its effective implementation along with the concerns it has generated in WTO           2013

  2. What are the different types of agriculture subsidies given to farmers at the national and state levels? Critically analyze the agriculture subsidy regime with the reference to the distortions created by it.         2013

A. Food: Tech. in aid of farmers

E-technology to aid farmers, Technology missions;


Previous years question:



  1. Explain various types of revolutions, took place in Agriculture after Independence in India. How these revolutions have helped in poverty alleviation and food security in India?     2017


  1. How can the ‘Digital India’ programme help farmers to improve farm productivity and income? What steps has the Government taken in this regards?            2015


3.Food processing and related industries in India- scope and significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management.


Previous years question:


  1. Policy taken by the government of India to meet the challenges of the food processing sector


  1. Examine the role of supermarkets in supply chain management of fruits, vegetables and food items. How do they eliminate number of intermediaries?            2018


  1. What are the reasons for poor acceptance of cost effective small processing unit? How the food processing unit will be helpful to uplift the socio-economic status of poor farmers? 2017


  1. Livestock rearing has a big potential for providing non-farm employment and income in rural areas. Discuss suggesting suitable measures to promote this sectors in India    2015

  2. In view of the declining average size of land holdings in India which has made agriculture non-viable for a majority of farmers, should contract farming and land leasing be promoted in agriculture? Critically evaluate the pros and cons.         2015

  3. What are the impediments in marketing and supply chain management in industry in India? Can e-commerce help in overcoming these bottlenecks?            2015


  1. There is also a point of view that agriculture produce market committees (APMCs) set up under the state acts have not only impeded the development of agriculture but also have been the cause of food inflation in India. Critically examine.  2014


  1. India needs to strengthen measures to promote the pink revolution in food industry for better nutrition and health. Critically elucidate the statement.            2013


4.Land reforms in India.

Previous years question:


  1. Discuss the role of land reforms in agricultural development. Identify the factors that were responsible for the success of land reforms in India.   2016


  1. Establish the relationship between land reform, agriculture productivity and elimination of poverty in Indian Economy. Discussion the difficulty in designing and implementation of the agriculture friendly land reforms in India.   2013


  1. NCERT Class X – Understanding Economic Development

  2. NCERT Class XI – Indian Economic Development (All Chapters 1 to 10)

  3. NCERT Class XII – Macroeconomics

  4. NCERT Class VIII Geography text, Resources and Development.

  5. The hindu, Indian Expresss news paper

Free Resources

Preparing Mains 

UPSC Mock Test

Daily Reading

Join Us