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Daily Current Affairs : 06-Nov-2019

Major Topics Covered :

  1. BENGAL TREE FROG GETS RECORDED AS NEW SPECIES

  2. GUJARAT ANTI-TERROR BILL

  3. FALL IN INDIA’S CO2 EMISSIONS

  4. TORT LAW AND POLLUTER PAYS PRINCIPLE

  5. ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS

  6. PAKISTAN SUSPEND EXCHANGE OF POSTAL MAIL


BENGAL TREE FROG GETS RECORDED AS NEW SPECIES

Part of GS- 2 Environment


Why in news?

Six herpetologists from Assam, West Bengal and Malaysia have recorded a new species of tree frog that had eluded the world of science despite thriving in residential areas.


Highlights:

  • The Polypedatesbengalensis frog is also known as the Brown Blotched Bengal Tree Frog.

  • It was found in two places in West Bengal-Badu, North 24 Parganas District and Khordanahala, South 24 Parganas District.

  • It is named Brown Blotched Bengal Tree Frog from the series of six to nine dark brown blotches that extend laterally from behind the frog’s eye to the vent. The frog’s body colour is yellowish-brown to greenish-brown.

  • It belongs to the genus Polypedates. There are 25 other Polypedates species (Polypedatesbengalensis is the 26th) around the world.



Source: The Hindu


GUJARAT ANTI-TERROR BILL

Part of GS- 3 Security


Why in news?

The President of India gave assent to the Gujarat Control of Terrorism and Organised Crime (GCTOC) Bill, an anti-terror legislation passed by Gujarat in 2015.


Highlights:

  • It defines a ‘terrorist act’, as an act committed with the intention to disturb law and order or threaten the unity, integrity, and security of the state.

  • It also mentions organized crime which are criminal activities run for a substantial profit.

  • It includes economic offences namely, Ponzi schemes, multi-level marketing schemes, and organized betting.

  • It also includes extortion, land grabbing, contract killings, cybercrimes, and human trafficking.

  • The investigating agencies can intercept telephonic conversations and submit them as legitimate evidence in court. However, the approval for interceptions of telephonic conversations will be cleared at the level of additional chief secretary.

  • The confessions made before a police officer will also be considered as evidence.

  • However, the confessions made to an officer of the rank of Superintendent of Police (SP) or above would only be admissible in court.

  • It provides 180 days’ time for authorities to file a charge sheet instead of the usual 90 days and also proposes stricter conditions for bail.

  • It also provides for the creation of a special court as well as the appointment of special public prosecutors.



Source: The Hindu


FALL IN INDIA’S CO2 EMISSIONS

Part of GS- 3 Environment


Why in news?

Carbon dioxide emissions are poised to grow at their slowest- a 2% rise from last year- since 2001, according to an analysis published in Carbon Brief, a site that tracks emission and carbon dioxide trends.


Highlights:

  • The rise in C02 emissions from India sees wild swings- from 7.7% in 2014 to 3.5% the next year and then back to 7.8% in 2018. This is the first time that emissions are expected to grow below 3% from the previous year.

  • Oil demand growth slowed to 2.6% in the first eight months of 2019, compared with 4.6% in 2018, and 5% on average over the past 10 years.

  • Use of petcoke (an oil refining byproduct) continues to fall after an import ban was put in place.

  • India banned the import of petcoke for use as a fuel in 2018.

  • Thus, import of petcoke is allowed for only cement, lime kiln, calcium carbide and gasification industries, when used as the feedstock or in the manufacturing process.

  • Demand for naphtha – a lighter fraction of refined crude oil used in the chemical industry – fell too, likely due to slower growth in petrochemicals.

  • Slowdown in the expansion of coal-fired electricity generation and surge in renewable power generation.

  • Due to rapid growth in renewable generation, the share of coal in meeting the electricity demand has decreased.

  • In the first six months of 2019, wind, solar and hydro met 70% of the increase in electricity demand.


International Energy Emissions Agency, 2018 report:

  • India’s per capita emissions were about 40% of the global average.

  • The emissions contributed 7% to the global carbon dioxide burden.

  • The U.S., the largest emitter, contributed 14%.



Source: The Hindu


TORT LAW AND POLLUTER PAYS PRINCIPLE

Part of GS- 1 Polity and Constitution


Why in news?

The Supreme Court has sought an explanation from the governments of Haryana, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh on why they should not be punished under tort law and be made to pay a hefty penalty for stubble fires seen so far this season. The court has said that the Polluter Pays Principle applies to all states and local bodies.


Tort Law

  • Tort law is the body of laws that enables people to seek compensation for wrongs committed against them.

  • When someone’s actions cause some type of harm to another, whether it be physical harm to another person, or harm to someone’s property or reputation, harmed or injured person or entity may seek damages through the court.

  • Generally, the compensations are monetary awards ordered by the court to be paid to an injured party, by the party at fault.

  • The types of damages that may be awarded by the court for civil wrongs, called “tortious conduct” of an individual or entity include:

Reimbursement for property loss or property damage

  1. Medical expenses

  2. Pain and suffering

  3. Loss of earning capacity

  4. Punitive damages


Polluter Pays Principle

It is the commonly accepted practice that those who produce pollution should bear the costs of managing it to prevent damage to human health or the environment. For example, a factory that produces a potentially poisonous substance as a byproduct of its activities is usually held responsible for its safe disposal.


It is part of the 1992 Rio Declaration which gives broader principles to guide sustainable development worldwide.


Source: The Hindu


ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS

Part of GS- 3 S&T


Why in news?

Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) accounted for 69.47% of morbidity last year which was the highest in the communicable disease category leading to 27.21% mortality.


Highlights:

  • Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal reported a large number of patients and fatalities due to ARI as per the National Health Profile-2019, which was recently released by the Union Health Ministry.

  • According to World Health Organisation, acute respiratory infection is a serious ailment that prevents normal breathing function and kills an estimated 2.6 million children annually every year worldwide.

  • Indians face the double burden of heavy air pollution in addition to the high rate of ARI which hits children the hardest.



Source: The Hindu


PAKISTAN SUSPEND EXCHANGE OF POSTAL MAIL

Part of GS- 2 IR


Why in news:


In a unilateral decision, Pakistan has stopped exchange of postal mails with India since August 27 (The Indian Express, September 28).


Communications Minister Ravi Shankar Prasad has said Pakistan’s decision was taken “without any prior notice” and “in direct contravention of international norms but Pakistan is Pakistan”. A look at the rules governing postal exchange, and how Pakistan took the step:


Who regulates postal exchange between one country and another?

  • The United Nations’ Universal Postal Union (UPU) frames rules for international mail exchange, and fixes rates for international postal services.

  • The UPU has 192 member-countries and is headquartered in Bern.

  • Constituted in 1874, the UPU has four units: the Congress, the Council of Administration, the International Bureau, and the Postal Operations Council.

  • It regulates 6.40 lakh postal outlets worldwide.

  • India joined the UPU on July 1, 1876 and Pakistan on November 10, 1947.


What has mail exchange between India and Pakistan been like?

  • Before Pakistan’s move, mailbags were being exchanged almost daily.

  • With no regular, direct flight connectivity between the two countries, mail was being routed through the Saudi Arabia air route.

  • In India, all international posts are handled through the 28 Foreign Post Offices, with those in Delhi and Mumbai designated to handle mails for Pakistan.

  • Other than the UPU, three agreements- Exchange of Value Payable Article, 1948; Exchange of Postal Article, 1974; and International Speed Post Agreement, 1987.


Source: Indian Express


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