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Daily Current Affairs : 13-Nov-2019

Major Topics Covered :

  1. PNEUMONIA, DIARRHOEA FALLING SHORT,

  2. FINDS GLOBAL STUDY

  3. INDIA, US TRI-SERVICES DISASTER RELIEF EXERCISE

  4. BOLIVIA

  5. BUSHEHR NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

  6. SURANGA BAWADI ON WORLD MONUMENT WATCH LIST

  7. THE WESTERN GHATS STILL HOME TO A RAINBOW OF BUTTERFLIES

  8. NATIONAL EDUCATION DAY

  9. MIHIR SHAH COMMITTEE- NATIONAL WATER POLICY

  10. PARLIAMENTARY PANEL REPORT OF CANCER PATIENTS


PNEUMONIA, DIARRHOEA FALLING SHORT, FINDS GLOBAL STUDY

Part of GS-3 S&T, Health


Why in news?

  • The 10th pneumonia and diarrhoea progress report card has found that health systems are falling short of ensuring the world’s most vulnerable children access to prevention and treatment services in the 23 countries that together account for 75% of global pneumonia and diarrhoea deaths in children under five.


Highlights:

  • The report card concludes that progress continues slowly and that the global community must increase investment and support countries in developing smart, sustainable strategies that close gaps and accelerate progress.

  • This report analyses how effectively countries are delivering 10 key interventions, including breastfeeding, vaccination, access to care, use of antibiotics, ORS, and zinc supplementation.

  • Globally, pneumonia and diarrhoea led to nearly one of every four deaths in children under five years of age in 2017.

  • Health systems are falling short of ensuring the world’s most vulnerable children access to prevention and treatment services in the 23 countries that together account for 75% of global pneumonia and diarrhoea deaths in children under five.

  • India accounts for a major portion of these deaths. Only half of the Indian children with diarrhoea receive ORS (oral rehydration solution) and 20% receive zinc supplementation — to help protect against, prevent and treat pneumonia and diarrhoea.

  • The report adds that 16 out of 23 countries assessed failed to meet the targets for any of 10 interventions to protect against and treat pneumonia and diarrhoea, as outlined in the World Health Organisation and UNICEF’s Integrated Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Pneumonia and Diarrhoea.

  • Three of the 23 countries met the 90% target coverage rate for at least four vaccines, while one was able to attain 90% level of coverage for all four treatment measures.

  • Additional Information:

  • Additional reports from organisations like Save the Children and UNICEF have noted that, in 2017, the highest risk factors for child pneumonia death in India were: 53% caused by child wasting, 27% by outdoor air pollution, and 22% caused by indoor air pollution from solid fuels.

Source: The Hindu


INDIA, US TRI-SERVICES DISASTER RELIEF EXERCISE

Part of GS- 3 Disaster Management


Why in news?

  • The first tri-Service exercise between India and the US, which will largely focus on amphibious HADR (humanitarian relief and disaster relief) operations, will kick off along the eastern coast in the Bay of Bengal on 13th November 2019.


Highlights:

  • The exercise, whose name “Tiger Triumph” was announced by US President Donald Trump during the “Howdy Modi” event at Houston last month in October, will be held off Visakhapatnam and Kakinada till November 21.

  • India is fielding its amphibious warships, INS Jalashwa and INS Airavat, survey ship INS Sandhayak, Army troops from the 19 Madras and 7 Guards battalions, and MI-17 helicopters and rapid action medical teams (RAMT) from the IAF.

  • The US, in turn, has deployed its amphibious warship USS Germantown, along with troops from the 3rd Marine Division.

  • The exercise is aimed at developing interoperability for jointly conducting HADR operations, which is in consonance with the growing partnership between India and the US.



Source: TOI

BOLIVIA

Part of GS- 2 IR


Why in news?

  • The President of Bolivia, Evo Morales, has resigned amid turmoil following his disputed re-election last month in Octover 2019. He has been in power for nearly 14 years. He left the post after losing the support of the army and the police.


Highlights:

  • He left the post after losing the support of the army and the police. The head of the army had called on him to go after protests over his election win. Auditors found irregularities with the poll but Evo Morales said he had been the victim of a coup.

  • The Vice-President, Alvaro Garcia Linera and Senate President Adriana Salvatierra, also resigned.

  • Bolivia has been rattled by weeks of anti-government protests following the reports of election fraud.


BOLIVIA

  • Bolivia is a landlocked country located in South America. It is bordered to the north and east by Brazil, to the southeast by Paraguay, to the south by Argentina, to the southwest by Chile, and to the northwest by Peru.

  • Alongside Paraguay, it is one of the only two landlocked countries in the Americas.

  • It is also the largest landlocked country in the Southern Hemisphere and the world's seventh largest landlocked country, after Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Chad, Niger, Mali and Ethiopia.

  • Its geography varies from the peaks of the Andes in the West, to the Eastern Lowlands, situated within the Amazon Basin. One-third of the country is within the Andean mountain range.

  • The capital is Sucre, while the seat of government and financial center is located in La Paz.



Source: AIR


BUSHEHR NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

Part of GS- 2 IR


Why in news:

  • Iran and Russia inaugurated a new phase of construction for a second reactor at Iran's sole nuclear power plant in Bushehr on the Gulf coast.


Highlights:

  • Ali Akbar Salehi, head of the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran and Deputy chief of Russia's nuclear agency Rosatom, Alexander Lokshin, launched the new stage at a ceremony where concrete was poured for the reactor base.

  • The reactor is one of two officially under construction since 2017 at the Bushehr site.

  • The landmark 2015 nuclear deal Iransigned with six major powers, including Russia, placed restrictions on the sort of nuclear reactor Tehran could develop and its production of nuclear fuel.

  • However, the pact did not require Iran to halt its use of nuclear energy for power generation.

  • As part of the agreement, Moscow provides Tehran with the fuel it needs for its electricity-generating nuclear reactors.

Important Information:


What is the Iran Nuclear deal?

  • Iran agreed to rein in its nuclear programme in a 2015 deal struck with the US, UK, Russia, China, France and Germany.

  • Under the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPoA) Tehran agreed to significantly cut its stores of centrifuges, enriched uranium and heavy-water, all key components for nuclear weapons.

  • The JCPOA established the Joint Commission, with the negotiating parties all represented, to monitor implementation of the agreement.

Why did Iran agree to the deal?

  • It had been hit with devastating economic sanctions by the United Nations, United States and the European Union that are estimated to have cost it tens of billions of pounds a year in lost oil export revenues.

  • Billions in overseas assets had also been frozen.

Why has US pulled out of the deal?

  • Trump and opponents to the deal say it is flawed because it gives Iran access to billions of dollars but does not address Iran’s support for groups the U.S. considers terrorists, like Hamas and Hezbollah.

  • They note it also doesn’t curb Iran’s development of ballistic missiles and that the deal phases out by 2030.

  • They say Iran has lied about its nuclear program in the past.

What are the implications of US sanctions on Iran?

  • Other countries have promised to uphold it but their ability to do so will depend on how their companies can be firewalled from U.S. sanctions if they continue their engagement with Iran.

  • The sanctions often referred to as “secondary sanctions”, which primarily target non-US companies engaging in business in or with Iran entirely outside US jurisdiction.

Significance of Iran Nuclear deal:

  • The Iran deal, despite its shortcomings, was a shining example of the capacity of world powers to come together and sort out a complex issue diplomatically.

  • It assumed greater significance given the recent wars and chaos in West Asia.

  • It should have set a model in addressing other nuclear crises.

  • Iran deal, and other diplomatic achievements, is necessary to convince countries like North Korea, that it is possible to create security without acquiring nuclear weapons.

  • The deal is important in ensuring the international nuclear non-proliferation regime and regional peace and stability.

Bushehr:

  • Bushehr is the capital city of Bushehr Province, Iran.

  • It is also known as Bandar Bushehr and BukhtArdashir.

  • Bushehr lies in a vast plain running along the coastal region on the Persian Gulf coast of south-western Iran.



Source:AIR


SURANGA BAWADI ON WORLD MONUMENT WATCH LIST

Part of GS- 1 Geography


Why in news?

  • SurangaBawadi, an integral part of the ancient Karez system of supplying water through subterranean tunnels built during Adil Shahi era in Vijayapura, is now set to get funding for restoration. A New York-based non-governmental organisation has included it in the World Monument Watch list for 2020 along with 24 other monuments from across the world.


Highlights:

  • The monument has been selected under the ‘Ancient Water System of the Deccan Plateau’by World Monuments Fund [the NGO], which monitors restoration of ancient monuments across the globe.

  • The list of the monuments selected, is available on the official website of the NGO.

  • “In this case, it will be working on the ancient water system ‘Karez’ which is believed to be one of the best systems in the world. But owing to lack of maintenance, the whole structure is in bad condition.

  • Though the Karezsystem was built in the 16th century by Ali Adil Shah–I, his successor, Ibrahim Adil Shah–II, brought in several changes by adding more structures to strengthen it.

  • According to historians, the Adil Shahis built the magnificent underground system to supply water to the city, which had a population of nearly 12 lakh then.

  • Meanwhile, the move has come as a shot in the arm for conservationists.

Karez system:

  • One of the most unique features of Bidar is the historic ‘Karez’ system (also known as Qanat) which is a water harnessing technology that originated in Iran/Persia.

  • Karez system was built by Bahmani kings in 15th Century by the Bahmani kings in Bidar, Gulbarg and Bijapur in Karnataka and also in Burhanpur in Madhya Pradesh.The ‘Karez’ system in Naubad village, Bidar is of great historic significance dating back to almost 500 years.

  • The karez technology basically taps into the ground water sources (or natural springs) and transports it through an underground tunnel to the settlement, ending in surface canal and/or pools in the village for various uses like drinking, washing, ablution, watering livestock, and also further used for irrigating fields, orchards and gardens.



Source: The Hindu


THE WESTERN GHATS STILL HOME TO A RAINBOW OF BUTTERFLIES

Part of GS- 3 Biodiversity


Why in news?

  • The Western Ghats is still home to a kaleidoscope of butterflies. A survey that ended in the Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary (WWS) on 11th November, 2019 could sight 191 species, 12 of which are endemic to the biodiversity-rich region.


Highlights:

  • The first-time sighting species name Brown Onyx, Common three ring, Peacock Royal & Tamil Lacewing has been sighted at the Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary during the butterfly survey.

  • The sighting of Silver forgets me not was reported only from the Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary in Idukki district of the State.

  • The three-day survey was done jointly by the Forest and Wildlife Department in association with the Ferns Nature Conservation Society (FNCS).

In four ranges

  • The survey was conducted in all the four forest ranges under the sanctuary, including Muthanga, Tholpetty, Kurichyad and SulthanBathery, simultaneously.

  • The survey was mainly aimed at assessing the butterfly diversity in the forest areas of the region, which is vulnerable to climatic changes.

  • It was also wanted to assess the availability of nectar plant and larval host plant, essential for the survival of butterflies.



Source: The Hindu


NATIONAL EDUCATION DAY

Part of GS- 1 History


Why in news:

  • Nation celebrating National Education Day on 11 November.


Highlights:


  • This day is observed every year in India to commemorate the Birth Anniversary of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, the first Education Minister of independent India, who served from 15 August 1947 until 2 February 1958.

  • As Chairman of the Central Advisory Board of Education, he gave thrust to adult literacy, universal primary education, free and compulsory for all children up to the age of 14, girls education, and diversification of secondary education and vocational training.

  • He oversaw the setting up of the Central Institute of Education, Delhi, which later became the Department of Education of the University of Delhi as "a research centre for solving new educational problems of the country"

  • He established- Ministry of Education established the first Indian Institute of Technology in 1951 and the University Grants Commission in 1953.

  • He also laid emphasis on the development of the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore and the Faculty of Technology of the Delhi University.

  • To take education to every doorstep of India, the Minister will be launching SWAYAM 2.0 later this afternoon.

  • SWAYAM is a programme initiated by the government to provide the best teaching-learning resources to all.



Source: AIR


MIHIR SHAH COMMITTEE- NATIONAL WATER POLICY

Part of GS-2 Governance and social justice- Water


Why in news?

  • The Union Water Resources Ministry has finalised a committee to draft a new National Water Policy (NWP).


Highlights:

  • The committee has 10 principal members. It will be chaired by Mihir Shah, who is a former Planning Commission member and a water expert.

  • The committee is expected to produce a report within six months.

National Water Policy (NWP), 2012:

  • The NWP currently in force was drafted in 2012.

  • It introduced the concept of an Integrated Water Resources Management approach that took the “river basin/ sub-basin”.

  • It is a unit for planning, development and management of water resources.

  • It also proposed that a portion of river flows ought to be kept aside to meet ecological needs.

  • That policy also stressed for a minimum quantity of potable water for essential health and hygiene to all its citizens to be made available within easy reach of households.



Source: The Hindu


PARLIAMENTARY PANEL REPORT OF CANCER PATIENTS

Part of GS-3 S&T, Health


Why in news:

  • Systematic failure to address needs results in 20% higher mortality, says the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Science, Technology and Environment.

  • The Department-related Standing Committee on Science headed by Jairam Ramesh has expressed serious concern over the rising number of cancer patients in the country. The report was presented to Rajya Sabha Chairman M Venkaiah Naidu.


Highlights:

  • The incidence, or the number of newly diagnosed cases of cancer annually, is about 16 lakh.

  • The disease kills 8 lakh people annually.

  • Among these are 140,000 fresh cases of breast cancer, 100,000 cervical cancer cases, and 45,000 cases of oral cancer among women.

  • Among men, the top three cancers with the highest incidence are those in the oral cavity (1,38,000 cases), cancer of the pharynx (90,000) and those of the gastro-intestinal tract (2,00,000).

  • Mortality to incidence ratio of 0.68 in India is higher than that in very high human development index (HDI) countries (0.38) and high HDI countries (0.57).

  • The incidence of cancer is very high in all North Eastern States, as it is higher than the national average for several types of cancer.



Source: The Hindu

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