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Daily current Affairs : 15-Nov-2019

Major Topics Covered :


  1. SUPREME COURT REFERS REVIEW PETITIONS ON SABARIMALA TO 7-JUDGE BENCH

  2. THE DOCTRINE OF "ESSENTIALITY"

  3. IDF DIABETES ATLAS

  4. TOURIST HOTSPOT VENICE HAS GONE UNDER WATER

  5. ATAL TINKERING LAB MARATHON 2018

  6. ICC JUDGES APPROVE AN INVESTIGATION INTO CRIMES AGAINST MYANMAR'S ROHINGYA

  7. TOBACCO BOARD RECEIVES 2019 GOLDEN LEAF AWARD



SUPREME COURT REFERS REVIEW PETITIONS ON SABARIMALA TO 7-JUDGE BENCH

Why in news:


Supreme Court said that restrictions on women in religious places was not limited to Sabarimala alone and was prevalent in other religions as well.


Highlights:

  • Supreme Court, by a majority of 3:2, has referred the review petitions to a larger seven judge bench.

  • Justice Rohinton Fali Nariman and Justice DY Chandrachud gave dissent judgement.

  • The Apex Court said, the larger bench will decide all such religious issues relating to Sabarimala, entry of women in mosques and practice of female genital mutilation in the Dawoodi Bohra community.

  • Chief Justice of India Ranjan Gogoi read the verdict on behalf of himself and Justices A M Khanwilkar and Indu Malhotra.

  • The CJI said, the endeavour of the petitioners was to revive debate on religion and faith.

  • The apex court, by a majority verdict of 4:1, in September 2018, had lifted the ban that prevented women and girls between the age of 10 and 50 from entering the famous Ayyappa shrine in Kerala.

  • It had also held that this centuries-old Hindu religious practice was illegal and unconstitutional.

Source: AIR

THE DOCTRINE OF "ESSENTIALITY"

Why in news?

The Supreme Court’s decision to refer the Sabarimala temple case to a larger 7-judge Bench reopens not only the debate on allowing women of menstruating age into the Ayyappa temple but the larger issue of whether any religion can bar women from entering places of worship.


Highlights:

  • The doctrine of “essentiality” was invented by a seven-judge Bench of the Supreme Court in the ‘Shirur Mutt’ case in 1954.

  • The court held that the term “religion” will cover all rituals and practices “integral” to a religion, and took upon itself the responsibility of determining the essential and non-essential practices of a religion.


Criticism:


This doctrine has been criticised by several constitutional experts who argue that the doctrine has tended to lead the court into an area that is beyond its competence, and given judges the power to decide purely religious questions.


The essentiality test impinges on this autonomy. The apex court has itself emphasised autonomy and choice in its Privacy (2017), 377 (2018), and Adultery (2018) judgments.

As a result, over the years, courts have been inconsistent on this question — in some cases they have relied on religious texts to determine essentiality, in others on the empirical behaviour of followers, and in yet others, based on whether the practice existed at the time the religion originated.


Source: Indian Express

IDF DIABETES ATLAS

Why in news:

The ninth edition of the International Diabetes Foundation (IDF) Diabetes Atlas was released on the occasion of International Diabetes Day.

China, India and US home to the largest number of adults with diabetes: International Diabetes Federation


Highlights:

India continues to be home to the second-largest number of adults with diabetes worldwide, with 77 million adults with diabetes in the 20-79 years age group.

This follows China, which has 116 million adults with diabetes in the same age profile.

The worldwide prevalence of diabetes was estimated at 463 million in this age group, or in other words, one in 11 adults.

India was the largest contributor to diabetes mortality with more than 1 million estimated deaths attributable to diabetes and related complications, in the larger South East Asian region.

The number of people with diabetes is predicted to rise to 578 million by 2030 and to 700 million by 2045.

374 million adults have impaired glucose tolerance, placing them at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

Diabetes was responsible for an estimated $760 billion in health expenditure in 2019.

Diabetes is among the top 10 causes of death, with people under the age of 60 accounting for almost half the deaths.

One in six live births is affected by hyperglycaemia in pregnancy.

World diabetes day-November 14:

It is because the day marks the birth anniversary of scientist and Nobel laureate Frederick Bantingwho discovered insulin (in 1922).

To create awareness about the effects of diabetes globally.

It was started in 1991 by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the World Health Organisation (WHO).

The day became an official United Nations Day in 2006.


Source: The Hindu

TOURIST HOTSPOT VENICE HAS GONE UNDER WATER

Why in news?

Italy has declared a state of emergency in Venice after the Italian city was engulfed by 1.87m (6ft) high water levels, flooding its historic basilica and cutting power to homes. More than 80% of the city, a UNESCO world heritage site, was under water when tides were at their highest.


Highlights:


Acquaalta:

  • Acquaalta is the term used in Veneto for the exceptional tide peaks that occur periodically in the northern Adriatic Sea.

  • The peaks reach their maximum in the Venetian Lagoon, where they cause partial flooding of Venice and Chioggia.

  • The phenomenon occurs mainly between autumn and spring, when the astronomical tides are reinforced by the prevailing seasonal winds that hamper the usual reflux. The main winds involved are the