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Daily Current Affairs : 18-Dec-2019

Major Topics Covered :

  1. LOK SABHA STRENGTH

  2. RELIGION AND LIVING ARRANGEMENTS AROUND THE WORLD

  3. PRADHAN MANTRI MATRU VANDANA YOJANA (PMMVY)

  4. INTERNATIONAL MIGRANTS DAY

  5. INTERNET SHUTDOWN

  6. BONE OSSIFICATION

  7. Lt Gen M.M. Naravane appointed as Chief of Army Staff

  8. NATIONAL BROADBAND MISSION (NBM)

  9. GLOBAL REFUGEE FORUM (GRF)

  10. Global Gender Gap Index for 2020


LOK SABHA STRENGTH

Part of GS- 2 Polity and Governance


Why in news?


Delivering the Second Atal Bihari Vajpayee Memorial Lecture in New Delhi on December 16 (Monday), former President Pranab Mukherjee said that the number of seats in Lok Sabha should be increased to 1,000 from the present 543, and advocated a corresponding increase in the number of MPs in Rajya Sabha and state legislatures.


Highlights:

  • Every MP currently represents an average 16-18 lakh Indians - too large a number to be kept in touch with in a meaningful way, Mukherjee said.

  • This argument has been made by several political leaders in the past - most recently by Jitin Prasada, Mukherjee’s former Cabinet colleague, who said that the number of Lok Sabha seats should be rationalised on the basis of population.

  • Article 81 of the Constitution defines the composition of the House of the People or Lok Sabha. It states that the House shall not consist of more than 550 elected members of whom not more than 20 will represent Union Territories.

  • At present, the strength of the Lok Sabha is 543, of which 530 have been allocated to the states, and the rest to the Union Territories.

  • The strength of Lok Sabha hasn’t always been 543 seats. Originally, Article 81 provided that the Lok Sabha shall not have more than 500 members. The first House constituted in 1952 had 497 members.

  • The last time the strength of the Lok Sabha was revised was in 1977, which was based on the 1971 census that put the population at 55 crore.

  • Arguments for change: Every MP currently represents an average 16-18 lakh Indians — too large a number to be kept in touch with in a meaningful way. Thus number of Lok Sabha seats should be rationalised on the basis of population. The population since then has more than doubled.

  • Under Article 331, the President could nominate up to two Anglo-Indians if he/she felt the community was inadequately represented in the House.

  • However, The Constitution (126th Amendment) Bill passed by Parliament last week, while extending the reservation for SC/STs, did away with the provision for nomination of Anglo Indians to Lok Sabha and some state Assemblies. This has brought the strength of Lok Sabha down to 543 now.


Source: Indian Express


RELIGION AND LIVING ARRANGEMENTS AROUND THE WORLD

Part of GS-1 Social Issue


Why in news?


Pew Research Center analysis released a new report titled “Religion and Living Arrangements Around the World.” The report analyses how Household living arrangements – how many people share a dwelling and how these people are related – varies by religion.


Highlights:

  • Worldwide, Muslims live in the biggest households. The average Muslim lives in a home of 6.4 people, followed by Hindus (5.7), Christians (4.5), Buddhists (3.9), the religiously unaffiliated – also known as “nones” (3.7) – and Jews (3.7).

  • Extended-family households – where relatives such as aunts, parents and grandparents live together – are the most common living arrangement around the world. This arrangement accounts for 38% of all people, including a majority of Hindus (55%).

  • Worldwide, Jews are the most likely to live alone (10%), while Muslims and Hindus are the least likely to do so (1% for each).

  • Christians are the most likely to live in single-parent households. Buddhists are the least likely to live in two-parent families.

  • In sub-Saharan Africa, 11% of all people live in polygamous households, including a quarter of Muslims. Outside of sub-Saharan Africa, the country having the highest share of people in polygamous households is Afghanistan (5%).

  • Women, regardless of their religious affiliation, are more likely than men to be single parents.


Source : PEW


PRADHAN MANTRI MATRU VANDANA YOJANA (PMMVY)

Part of GS- Health


Why in news?


According to activists working at the grassroots level, The Maternity scheme namely the Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana (PMMVY) is exclusionary. Thus there is a growing louder demand for a scheme that is truly universal.


Highlights:

  • Registration for the scheme requires an applicant to provide her husband’s Aadhaar details along with her own, affecting single women which include unwed mothers, deserted wives and widows.

  • The Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana (PMMVY) was announced by Prime Minister Narendra Modi on December 31, 2016 as a pan-India maternity benefit programme promising ₹6,000 to new mothers.

  • A mother seeking benefits needs to provide proof of address of her marital home, which proves challenging for a newlywed expecting a child and often residing in her natal home during pregnancy.