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Daily Current Affairs : 20-Jan-2020

Major Topics Covered :

  1. K-4- MISSILE

  2. LAW AGAINST SEXUAL HARASSMENT AT WORK

  3. YADA YADA VIRUS-(YYV)

  4. IRRAWADDY DOLPHINS

  5. NEARLY EXTINCT NORTHERN WHITE RHINO

  6. PULSE POLIO

  7. D3S-i

  8. NATIONAL HIGHWAYS EXCELLENCE AWARDS

  9. FEWER DEATH SENTENCES OVERALL

  10. STEPPE EAGLE



K-4- MISSILE

Part of GS- 3 Defence & Security


Why in news?

India on 19th January, 2020, successfully test-fired the 3,500-km range submarine- launched ballistic missile, K-4, official sources confirmed. The test was carried out by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) from a submerged pontoon off the Visakhapatnam coast around noon.


Highlights:

• The test was conducted from a submerged pontoon and has met the desired parameters. A pontoon simulates the situation of a launch from a submarine.

K-4 is one of the two underwater missiles that were being developed by DRDO.

The other one is the over 700 kilometre strike range BO-5 missile.

INS Arihant, the first and only operational SSBN, is armed with K-15 Sagarika missiles with a range of 750 km.

• The missile has been tested several times earlier as part of developmental trials to validate different parameters.

• Once inducted, these missiles will be the mainstay of the Arihant class of indigenous ballistic missile nuclear submarines and will give India the stand-off capability to launch nuclear weapons submerged in Indian waters.


Source: AIR


LAW AGAINST SEXUAL HARASSMENT AT WORK

Part of GS- 1 Social Issue


Why in news?

The Group of Ministers (GoM) headed by Home Minister Amit Shah, which was constituted to strengthen the legal framework to prevent sexual harassment at the workplace, has finalised its recommendations, a senior official said.


Highlights:

• The GoM was constituted first in October 2018 in the aftermath of the #MeToo movement after many women shared their ordeal on social media.

• The recommendations, which include addition of new provisions to the Indian Penal Code, will be put up for comments from the public, the official said.

Sexual Harassment of Women and Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act in 2013:

• The Women and Child Development Ministry had steered the Sexual Harassment of Women and Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act in 2013, which was applicable to government offices, the private sector, NGOs and the unorganised sector.

• The 2013 Act had shortcomings like giving the powers of a civil court to the internal complaints committee without specifying if the members need to have a legal background.

• It only imposed a fine of Rs. 50,000 on employers for non-compliance.

• The Act said the employer shall provide assistance to the woman if she chooses to file a complaint under the IPC “against the perpetrator after the conclusion of the enquiry”.

• The proposed amendments would be largely based on the Vishaka Guidelines laid down by the Supreme Court in 1997, on which the 2013 Act was based.

• It made the employer responsible to prevent or deter acts of sexual harassment at the workplace.


About JUDICIAL ACTIVISM:

• In 1992, Vishakha Judgement, came about after the case received unprecedented media attention and for the first time the Supreme Court defined ‘Sexual harassment at work place’. And the Apex Court laid down landmark guidelines.

The Guidelines issued by the court said that-

• It shall be the duty of the employer or other responsible persons in workplace or other institutions to prevent or deter the acts of sexual harassment and to provide the procedures for the resolution, settlement or prosecution of acts of sexual harassment by taking all steps required.

• The rules/regulations of the government and the public sector bodies relating to conduct and discipline should include rules/regulation Prohibiting sexual harassment and provide for appropriate penalties in such rules against the offender.

• As regards private employers, steps should be taken to include the aforesaid prohibitions in the standing orders under the Industrial employment (Standing Orders) Act, 1946."


About NCRB data:

• According to NCRB, only one in four cases of rape are convicted.

• The National Crime Records Bureau's (NCRB) National Crime Report says in 2017 out of 46,984 registered rape cases, in 5,855 cases accused were convicted.

• This means 86.6% rape charge-sheets could not be proved.