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Daily Current Affairs : 23-Nov-19

Major Topics Covered :









  9. THE CITIZENSHIP ACT, 1955: SECTIONS 5(1)(F) AND 10(2)




Why in news:

The researchers of the University of Gothenburg in Sweden have developed a potential Diarrhea vaccine.


  • Science journal, The Lancet, reports that it has been proved safe and effective in an early-stage clinical trial in Bangladesh.

  • The report said that 80 to 100 per cent of the children aged two to five years and 50 to 80 per cent of infants aged six to eleven months, selected for the study responded to all key immunity generating components of the vaccine.

  • The researchers said, there is no vaccine yet for use for children and vaccine development for Diarrhea is a World Health Organization priority.


Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) bacteria are a primary cause of diarrhea, leading to substantial illness and death in children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).

Currently there is no ETEC vaccine available on the market for use in children in ETEC high-risk areas.

Now, an oral ETEC vaccine candidate, named ETVAX, was developed at University of Gothenburg in collaboration with Scandinavian Biopharma, Stockholm.

ETVAX consists of inactivated E. coli bacteria expressing high levels of protective antigens and the ETEC-based B subunit protein LCTBA.

Science journal, The Lancet, reports that it has been proved safe and effective in an early-stage clinical trial in Bangladesh against enterotoxigenic E. coli diarrhea in children from 6 months to 5 years of age.

Source : All India Radio


Why in news:

Indian scientists identify a protein that helps regulate blood sugar levels. Scientists at the CSIR-Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB) in Hyderabad have demonstrated the role of a protein secretagogin (SCGN) in increasing insulin action in obesity-induced diabetes.


  • CCMB said that the findings established SCGN as a functional insulin-binding protein with therapeutic potential against diabetes.

  • They show that SCGN binds to insulin and protects it from various stresses, increases its stability and adds to its action.

  • It said various kinds of cellular stresses can result in loss of structure and function of insulin, ultimately leading to diabetes.

  • At present, the processes regulating insulin synthesis, maturation, secretion and signalling in diabetes were not completely understood.

  • The scientists have shown injection of SCGN (found at lower levels in diabetic patients) in obese diabetic mice clears excess insulin from circulation and reduces fat mass.

  • CCMB release said that SCGN treated animals also had lower levels of harmful LDL-cholesterol and lower lipid accumulation in liver cells.

  • Diabetes and neurodegenerative disorders such as dementia and Alzheimer's disease are often linked with each other.

  • SCGN is found in lower quantities in the brains of Alzheimer's patients.

Source: AIR


Why in news:

The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) constituted a three-member panel to advise the Administrator of Dewan Housing Finance Corporation Limited (DHFL) ahead of formally moving for resolution of the troubled mortgage lender under the insolvency law.


  • Recently, RBI superseded DHFL's board and placed the company under an administrator in the wake of governance issues and severe liquidity crisis which had led to a string of defaults.

  • Now, RBI, in exercise of powers conferred under section 45 IE 5(a) of the RBI Act 1934, constituted a three-member Advisory Committee to assist the Administrator of DHFL in discharge of his duties.

  • The members of the Advisory Committee are as follows: Rajiv Lall, Non-Executive Chairman, IDFC First Bank Ltd N S Kannan, Managing Director and CEO, ICICI Prudential Life Insurance Co. Ltd NS Venkatesh, Chief Executive, Association of Mutual Funds in India

  • The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Rules, 2019 have a provision for the financial sector regulator concerned to appoint a committee to advise the administrator in the operations of the financial service provider during the corporate insolvency resolution process.

Source : The Hindu


Why in news:

On global cybercrime, India votes in favour of Russia-led resolution. For years, the Russian-led campaign for a cybercrime convention in the UN has been framed in direct opposition to a separate treaty: the Council of Europe’s (CoE) Cybercrime Convention- also known as the Budapest Convention- which has eagerly called for Indian participation since its formation in 2001 to no avail.


  • India was represented by a senior official of the National Cyber Security Coordinator in the Prime Minister’s Office and an IT Ministry-nominated police officer.

  • As India’s domestic data laws continue to hang in the balance, the country has remained non-committal in the international arena, watching a clear cleavage with Russia and China on one side and the US and EU on the other.

  • This week, India maintained its status as a non-member of the Europe-led Budapest Convention, even as it voted in favour of a Russian-led UN resolution to set up a separate convention, sources told The Indian Express.

  • Russian-led UN resolution: The Russian proposal entitled “Countering the use of information and communications technologies for criminal purposes” passed in the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) Third Committee 88-58, with 34 absentations, on Monday.

  • The convention is the sole legally binding multilateral treaty that coordinates cybercrime investigations between nation-states and criminalises certain cybercrime conduct.

  • The conference is to discuss the formation of a Protocol to the Budapest Convention by the end of 2020.

  • Almost all stakeholders agree that the current form of cross-border data sharing for law enforcement through the mutual legal assistance treaty (MLAT) is insufficient for the digital age.

  • It is the first international treaty seeking to address cybercrime by harmonizing national laws, improving investigative techniques, and increasing cooperation among nations.

  • The following offences are defined by the Convention: illegal access, illegal interception, misuse of devices, computer-related fraud, offences related to child pornography, and offences related to copyright and neighbouring rights.

  • Timeline: It was opened for signature in Budapest in 2001 and it entered into force in 2004.

  • Participants: It was drawn up by the Council of Europe with the active participation of the Council of Europe's observer states Canada, Japan, Philippines, South Africa and the United States. As of September 2019, 64 states have ratified the convention.

  • Non-participants: Brazil and India have declined to adopt the Convention on the grounds that they did not participate in its drafting.

  • Russia opposes the Convention, stating that adoption would violate Russian sovereignty.

Source : Indian Express


Why in news:

  • India is ranked 44 in Nomura's Food Vulnerability Index (NFVI) that compiled the vulnerability of 110 countries in the world.

  • According to a new report by Nomura Global Market Research, the 50 countries most vulnerable to food price surges in the coming months largely belong to the Emerging Market group.


The top 50 together account for almost 60 per cent of the global population- reflecting the massive number of individuals and households that are vulnerable.

What is Nomura’s Food Vulnerability Index?

The NFVI ranks countries on the basis of their exposure to large swings in food prices.

NFVI has three components: (1) country’s GDP per person, (2) the share of food in household consumption and (3) the net food imports. Typically, lower per capita GDP, higher share of food in household consumption and high net food imports would make a country more vulnerable to spikes in food prices.

What could cause food prices to rise?

  • Nomura states that the dip in food prices from the highs of 2010 and 2011 could quickly reverse.

  • It lists three potential triggers for a rise in food prices and three potential amplifiers.

  • The three potential triggers are weather-related shocks (that may reduce supply), higher oil prices (which will raise costs of transportation), and a sharp depreciation in US dollar (that undermines the purchasing power of a country that imports food).

  • The three amplifiers are the protectionist agricultural trade policies (such as additional tariffs that what would otherwise have been cheap food imports, costly), increased hoarding and speculation in food articles (as traders realise that hoarding will increase their profits), and the already highly (and often hidden) national debt in some of the most vulnerable countries.

  • Nomura is an Asia-headquartered financial services group with an integrated global network spanning over 30 countries.

Source: Indian Express


Why in news:

Four-day Aalmi Tablighi Ijtima, world's biggest Islamic Congregation begins in Bhopal. In Madhya Pradesh, the four-day Aalmi Tablighi Ijtima, world's biggest Islamic Congregation began in Bhopal this morning.


More than one million people from 54 countries are expected to attend the congregation which will continue till 25th November.


  • One of the most prominent features of Alami Tablighi Ijtima is that it has no political affiliation.

  • It is a forum for delivering some important religious-spiritual messages to Muslims around the world.

  • As per the information, Ijtima started in the era of Nawabs in Bhopal and now it has become the identity of Bhopal worldwide.

  • The first Alami Tablighi Ijtima took place in Bhopal in 1944 and only 14 people attended it then.

  • Now the number has increased to millions.

  • Thousands of people from various countries across the world including Russia, France, Indonesia, Malaysia, Iraq and Saudi Arabia have reached Bhopal to participate in this event.

Source: AIR


Why in news:

The US State Department has approved the sale of 13 MK 45 5 inch/62 caliber (MOD 4) naval guns and some other equipment worth $1 billion to India for use against warships, anti-aircraft and shore bombardment. The items will be manufactured by BAE Systems Land and Armaments.


  • The MK 45 is a fully automatic naval gun system that is installed on ships and provides a Naval Surface Fire Support (NSFS) range of more than 20 nautical miles (36 km) along with improved propelling charge.

  • MK 45 is an upgraded version with a 62 caliber barrel, strengthened gun and mount subsystems, advanced control system enhancements, greater range and firepower, a reduced signature and low maintenance gun shield.

  • This system of guns is currently in use by the US Navy on their fleet of Ticonderoga class cruisers and Arleigh Burke class destroyers.

  • Other countries that have been sold the MOD 4 naval guns are Japan, Australia and South Korea.

  • The US may also sell these guns to other allies including Britain and Canada.

  • The Indian government had requested the US to buy up to 13 MK 45 5 inch/62 caliber (MOD 4) naval guns and 3,500 D349 Projectile 5 inch/54 caliber (MOD 1) ammunition.

Source : Indian Express


Department of Fisheries organized a function to celebrate the World Fisheries Day in New Delhi.


  • The day is celebrated every year on November 21 throughout the fishing communities to highlight the importance of lives of water creatures to humans.

  • It started in 1997 where “World Forum of Fish Harvesters & Fish Workers” met at New Delhi leading to formation of “World Fisheries Forum” with representatives from 18 countries and signed a declaration advocating sustainable fishing practices.

  • The Centrally Sponsored Scheme “Blue Revolution” - Integrated Development and Management of Fisheries launched in 2016 for a period of 5 years made vital contributions towards the development of fisheries sector in terms of fish production and productivity.

  • The annual production of fisheries in India has reached up to 13 million metric tonnes and the Ministry is working on achieving target of 20 million metric tonne in the next five years.

Source : PIB


Why in news:

The Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) on cancelled the citizenship of Chennamaneni Ramesh, a TRS MLA from Vemulawada in north Telangana.


  • A son of freedom fighter parents, Ramesh has been a citizen of Germany in the past, and had acquired Indian citizenship in 2009.

  • The MHA has cancelled his citizenship on the ground of misrepresentation of facts at the time of applying for citizenship in 2008.

  • He did not disclose that he had not lived in India for 12 months before the date of the application for Indian citizenship, even though he had made multiple trips to Germany during this period.

  • This was in violation of The Citizenship Act, 1955, and the Rules under it.

  • Thus he obtained registration of citizenship under section 5(1)(f) by means of fraud, false representation and concealment of facts and his action attracts provisions of section 10(2) of the Act.

  • This makes him liable to be deprived of his Indian citizenship.

  • Sections 5(1)(f) and 10(2) of The Citizenship Act, 1955?

  • These sections deal with grant of citizenship and the authority of the government to cancel the same.

  • Section 5(1)(f) says: The Central Government may register as a citizen of India any person if a person who, or either of his parents, was earlier citizen of independent India, and has been residing in India for one year immediately before making an application for registration.”

  • Section 10(2) says: The Central Government may deprive any such citizen of Indian citizenship, if it is satisfied that the registration or certificate of naturalisation was obtained by means of fraud, false representation or the concealment of any material fact.

  • The law, however, also provides for checks to ensure that citizenship is not cancelled arbitrarily.

  • Section 10(3) of the Act says, “The Central Government shall not deprive a person of citizenship under this section unless it is satisfied that it is not conducive to the public good that person should continue to be a citizen of India.”

Source : Indian Express


Why in news:

The death anniversary of Lala Lajpat Rai, the firebrand Indian nationalist leader affectionately called ‘Punjab Kesari’ was recently observed.

In 1913, Rai set out for a lecture tour to Japan, England, and the United States, but was forced to stay put abroad after World War I broke and remained overseas until 1920.


Lala Lajpat Rai- Born at Dhudike near Ludhiana in Punjab in 1865, Rai studied law at the Government College, Lahore, and had a legal practice in that city.

Early in life, he became a follower of Dayanand Saraswati, the founder of the Arya Samaj, and went on to become one of the society’s leaders.

In 1885, Rai established the Dayanand Anglo-Vedic School in Lahore and remained a committed educationist throughout his life.

In 1881, he joined the Indian National Congress.

Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Bipin Chandra Pal (called Lal-Bal-Pal) fervently advocated the use of Swadeshi goods and mass agitation in the aftermath of the controversial Partition of Bengal in 1905 by Lord Curzon.

In 1913, Rai set out for a lecture tour to Japan, England, and the United States.

During his travels, he met many diaspora communities and founded the Indian Home Rule League of America in New York City in 1917.

Upon his return, Rai was elected President of the Indian National Congress during its Special Session in Kolkata in 1920, which saw the launch of Mahatma Gandhi’s Non-cooperation Movement.

He was subsequently imprisoned from 1921 and 1923.

In 1928, Rai opposed the Simon Commission, a British-appointed group of lawmakers arrived in India to study the implementation of the Government of India Act, 1919 (the Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms).

The group of 7 did not consist of a single Indian member, a fact that was heavily resented by the Congress.

He was severely lathi-charged during a protest against Simon Commission in Lahore on October 30, 1928.

It was after this that Rai famously said, “The blows struck at me today will be the last nails in the coffin of British rule in India.”

He died a few days later on November 17.

He also wrote extensively in English and Urdu.

His important works include: ‘The Arya Samaj’, ‘Young India’, ‘England’s Debt to India’, ‘Evolution of Japan’, ‘India’s Will to Freedom’, ‘Message of the Bhagwad Gita’, ‘Political Future of India’, ‘Problem of National Education in India’, ‘The Depressed Glasses’, and the travelogue ‘United States of America’.

Source : Indian Express


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