• Admin

Daily Current Affairs : 25-Nov-2019

Major Topics Covered :

  1. KEY INDICATORS OF HOUSEHOLD SOCIAL CONSUMPTION ON EDUCATION IN INDIA NSS 75TH ROUND

  2. HOUSEHOLD SOCIAL CONSUMPTION IN INDIA: HEALTH NSS 75TH ROUND

  3. NSS REPORT NO.584: DRINKING WATER, SANITATION, HYGIENE AND HOUSING CONDITION IN INDIA, NSS 76TH ROUND (JULY –DECEMBER 2018)

  4. NSS REPORT NO. 583: PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES IN INDIA NSS 76TH ROUND (JULY – DECEMBER 2018)

  5. EARTH'S MOST UNINHABITABLE PLACE FOUND

  6. GLOBAL BIO-INDIA SUMMIT, 2019

  7. 8TH INTERNATIONAL TOURISM MART AT IMPHAL, MANIPUR

  8. SPECIAL NON-RESIDENT RUPEE (SNRR) ACCOUNTS TO MAINTAIN EXTERNAL COMMERCIAL BORROWINGS (ECBS)

  9. PLASTIC PARKS

  10. BOUGAINVILLE

  11. GENERAL SECURITY OF MILITARY INFORMATION AGREEMENT (GSOMIA)

  12. RULE 12 OF THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA (TRANSACTION OF BUSINESS) RULES, 1961

  13. PER CAPITA CONSUMPTION OF ELECTRICITY

  14. 50th Conference of Governors Concludes at Rashtrapati Bhavan

  15. WOODEN BREAST SYNDROME

  16. GOLDEN RICE

  17. REVIEW PETITION


KEY INDICATORS OF HOUSEHOLD SOCIAL CONSUMPTION ON EDUCATION IN INDIA NSS 75TH ROUND

Part of GS- Education


Why in news?

National Statistical Office (NSO), Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation has conducted a survey on Household Social Consumption: Education as part of 75th round of National Sample Survey (NSS). Prior to this, surveys on the same subject were carried out during 64th round (July 2007- June 2008) and 71st round (January - June 2014).


Highlights:

  • Literacy rate among persons of age 7 years and above was 77.7%. It was 73.5% in rural and 87.7% in the urban areas.

  • Nearly 10.6 % of the persons of age 15 years and above in India had completed level of education graduate and above. This was 5.7% in rural and 21.7% in urban areas.

  • Among persons of age 3 to 35 years, 13.6% never enrolled,5% ever enrolled but currently not attending while 43.9% were currently attending.

  • Net Attendance Ratio (NAR) at primary level was 86.1%. The figure was 72.2% at ‘upper primary / middle level’ and 89.0% at ‘primary and upper primary /middle level’

  • Nearly 96.1% of the students were pursuing general courses and 3.9% were pursuing technical/professional courses.

  • Among students pursuing general courses, nearly 55.8% were male students and 44.2% were female students.

  • Among students pursuing technical/professional courses, nearly 65.2% were male students and 34.8% were female students.

  • Nearly 57.0% of the students in rural and 23.4% in urban areas received free education.

  • Nearly 15.7% of the students in rural and 9.1% in urban areas received scholarship/ stipend/ reimbursement.

  • Nearly 4.4% of the rural households and 23.4% of the urban households had computer. Nearly 14.9% of the rural households and 42.0% of the urban households had internet facility.



Source: PIB

HOUSEHOLD SOCIAL CONSUMPTION IN INDIA: HEALTH NSS 75TH ROUND

Part of GS- Health


Why in news?

The National Statistical Office (NSO), Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation has conducted the survey on Household Social Consumption related to Health during the period July 2017 to June 2018 as a part of 75th round of National Sample Survey (NSS). Prior to this, there have been three such surveys – carried out, in 1995-96 (52nd round of NSS), 2004 (60th round of NSS) and 2014 (71st round of NSS).


Highlights:

  • Percentage of persons that responded as ailing in a 15-day period: 5% in India as a whole (6.7% for males and 8.3% for females).

  • Proportion of persons treated as in-patient any time during a 365-day period: 9% in India as a whole (2.8% for males and 2.9% for females).

  • In-patient hospitalization (excluding childbirth) by type of hospital for availing treatment: Public hospitals accounted for 42%, Private hospitals (excl. charitable, NGO-run) accounted for 55% and Charitable/trust/NGO-run hospitals accounted for 2.7%.

  • Healthcare service provider for treatment of ailments: Government hospitals in case of 30% ailments; Private hospitals in case of 23% ailments; Private doctors/clinics in case of 43% ailments and Informal health care provider and Charitable/trust/NGO-run hospitals in case of remaining 4.1% of ailments.

  • 14% of the rural population and 19% of the urban population reported that they had health expenditure coverage.

  • In both rural and urban India, 95% of ailments were treated by allopathy.

  • Average medical expenditure per hospitalisation case (excluding childbirth) in rural India is about Rs. 16,676 and Rs. 26,475 in urban India.

  • Place of childbirth: In rural areas about 90% childbirths were institutional (in Government/private hospitals) and in urban areas it was about 96%.

  • Surgery was done in about 28% of hospital childbirths in India (rural: about 24%; urban: about 41%).

  • Immunisation among children aged 0-5 years: About 59% of boys and 60% of girls at all-India level had been fully immunised (i.e., received all 8 prescribed vaccinations).



Source: PIB

NSS REPORT NO.584: DRINKING WATER, SANITATION, HYGIENE AND HOUSING CONDITION IN INDIA, NSS 76TH ROUND (JULY –DECEMBER 2018)

Part of GS-1 Social issue


Why in news?

The National Statistical Office (NSO), Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation has conducted a survey on Drinking Water, Sanitation, Hygiene and Housing Condition as a part of 76th round of National Sample Survey (NSS). Some important findings of the survey are given below.


Highlights:


Drinking water facility:

The major source of drinking water was hand pump for the households in the rural areas and piped water into dwelling in the urban areas.


About 42.9% of the households in the rural areas used hand pump as the principal source of drinking water. About 40.9% of the households in the urban areas used piped water into dwelling as the principal source of drinking water.


Bathroom and sanitation facility:

About 50.3% of the households in the rural and about 75.0% in the urban areas had exclusive access to bathroom.


About 71.3% of the households in the rural and about 96.2% in the urban areas had access to latrine. About 50.9% of the households in rural and 48.9% in urban areas used flush/pour-flush to septic tank type of latrine.


About 48.0% of the households in the rural areas and about 86.1% of the households in the urban areas had bathroom and latrine both within household premises.


Tenurial status and household characteristics:


About 96.0% of the households in the rural and about 63.8% in the urban areas had their own dwelling unit.


Among the households living in houses, about 76.7% of the households in the rural and about 96.0% in the urban areas had the house of pucca structure.


Micro environment:

  • Among the households living in houses, about 93.9% of the households in the rural and about 99.1% in the urban areas had electricity for domestic use.

  • Among the households living in houses, about 48.3% of the households in the rural and about 86.6% in the urban areas used LPG as fuel for cooking.

  • Among the households living in houses, about 80.4% of the households in the rural areas had no arrangement for collection of household garbage. In the urban areas, municipality made arrangement for collection of household garbage for about 74.1% of the households.



Source: PIB


NSS REPORT NO. 583: PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES IN INDIA NSS 76TH ROUND (JULY – DECEMBER 2018)

Part of GS-1 Social Issues


Why in news?

The National Statistical Office (NSO), Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation has conducted a Survey of Persons with Disabilities during July 2018 to December 2018 as a part of 76th round of National Sample Survey (NSS). Prior to this, survey on the same subject was carried out by NSO during the 58th round (July-December 2002).


Highlights:

  • In India prevalence of disability (percentage of persons with disability in the population) was 2.2% with 2.3% in rural and 2.0% in urban areas. Prevalence of disability was higher among males than females.

  • Incidence of disability in the population, that is the number of persons with onset of disability (by birth or otherwise) during 365 days preceding the date of survey was 86 per 1,00,000 persons.

  • Level of education among persons with disabilities: Among persons with disabilities of age 7 years and above, 52.2% were literate. Among persons with disabilities of age 15 years and above, 19.3% had highest educational level as secondary and above.

  • Percentage of persons with disabilities who were living alone was 3.7 %. Among persons with disabilities, 62.1 % had care giver.

  • Percentage of persons with disabilities who received aid/help from Government was 21.8% and another 1.8% received aid/help from organisations other than Government.

  • Among persons with disabilities of age 15 years and above,

  • Labour Force Participation Rate in usual status was 23.8%.

  • Worker Population Ratio in usual status was 22.8%.

  • Unemployment Rate in usual status was 4.2%.



Source: PIB


EARTH'S MOST UNINHABITABLE PLACE FOUND

Part of GS- 1 Geography


Why in news?

The study, published in the journal Nature Ecology and Evolution, revealed that any form of microbial life was absent in the hot, saline, hyper acid ponds of the Dallol geothermal field in Ethiopia.


Highlights:

  • The study, published in the journal, Nature Ecology and Evolution, revealed that any form of microbial life was absent in the hot, saline, hyperacid ponds of the Dallol geothermal field in Ethiopia.

  • The study helps in understanding the limits of habitability and presents evidence that there are places even on Earth's surface which are sterile though they contain liquid water.


Dallol geothermal field?

  • Dallol is a unique, terrestrial hydrothermal system in Ethiopia. Dallol lies in the evaporitic plain of the Danakil depression at the Afar Triangle, in the prolongation of the Erta Ale basaltic volcanic range.

  • It is known for its unearthly colors and mineral patterns, and the very acidic fluids that are discharging from its hydrothermal springs.

  • The intrusion of basaltic magma in the marine sedimentary sequence of Danakil resulted in the formation of a salt dome structure, where the hydrothermal system is hosted.

  • The wider area of Dallol is known as one of the driest and hottest places on the planet. It is also one of the lowest land points, lying 125 m (410 ft) below mean sea level.



Source: AIR


GLOBAL BIO-INDIA SUMMIT, 2019 

Part of GS-3 S&T


Why in news?

India’s first largest biotechnology stakeholders’ conglomerate, - the Global Bio-India (GBI) Summit, 2019 concluded here today.


Highlights:

  • The three-day event was organized by the Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Ministry of Science & Technology, Government of India along with Biotechnology Industry Research Assistance Council (BIRAC).

  • The Department plans to turn the GBI into an annual event with support from all stakeholders.

  • The Summit provided an opportunity to showcase the potential of India’s biotech sector to the international community, identify, create opportunities and deliberate on the key challenges in the areas of Bio-pharma, Bio-Agri, Bio-Industrial, Bio-Energy and Bio-Services and allied sectors.



Source: PIB


8TH INTERNATIONAL TOURISM MART AT IMPHAL, MANIPUR

Part of GS-1 A&C


Why in news?

Minister of State (I/C) for Culture & Tourism, Shri Prahlad Singh Patel and Chief Minister of Manipur, Shri N. Biren Singh jointly inaugurated the 8th International Tourism Mart today at Imphal, Manipur. The Ministry of Tourism, Government of India, in association with the North Eastern States is organising the “International Tourism Mart” (ITM) at Imphal, Manipur from 23 November to 25 November, 2019.


Highlights:

  • This is the 8th International Tourism Mart (ITM) and an annual event organised in the North Eastern region with the objective of highlighting the tourism potential of the region in the domestic and international markets.

  • It brings together the tourism business fraternity and entrepreneurs from the 8 North Eastern States. The event has been planned to facilitate interaction between buyers, sellers, media, Government agencies and other stakeholders.

  • The ITMs are organised in the North Eastern States on rotation basis. Manipur is hosting this mart for the second time. The earlier editions of this mart have been held in Guwahati, Tawang, Shillong, Gangtok, Agartala.



Source: PIB


SPECIAL NON-RESIDENT RUPEE (SNRR) ACCOUNTS TO MAINTAIN EXTERNAL COMMERCIAL BORROWINGS (ECBS)

Part of GS-3 Economy


Why in news?

In a bid to boost internationalisation of the rupee, foreigners have been allowed to use special non-resident rupee (SNRR) accounts to maintain external commercial borrowings (ECBs) in rupees, retain rupee trade credits, and conduct business-related transactions in domestic currency even outside international finance centres.


Highlights:

  • Now, RBI has expanded the scope of SNRR Account by permitting person resident outside India to open such account for:

  • External Commercial Borrowings in INR;

  • Trade Credits in INR;

  • Trade (Export/ Import) Invoicing in INR; and

  • Business related transactions outside International Financial Service Centre (IFSC) by IFSC units at GIFT city like administrative expenses in INR outside IFSC, INR amount from sale of scrap, government incentives in INR, etc.

  • It has also been decided to rationalise certain other provisions for operation of the SNRR Account, as under:

  • Remove the restriction on the tenure of the SNRR account opened for the purposes given at paragraph 3 above as the proposed transactions are more enduring in nature.

  • Apart from Non-Resident Ordinary (NRO) Account, permit credit of amount due/ payable to non-resident nominee from account of a deceased account holder to Non-Resident External (NRE) Account or direct remittance outside India through normal banking channels.



Source: Economic Times


PLASTIC PARKS

Part of GS- 3 Environment and Ecology


Why in news?

The government has approved setting up of six plastic parks in different parts of the country.


Highlights:

  • These parks will have an ecosystem with state of the art infrastructure building and enabling the common facility to consolidate and synergize the capacities of the domestic downstream plastic processing industry.

  • These parks are located in Assam, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Jharkhand and Tamil Nadu.

  • Under the scheme, the government provides grant funding up to 50 per cent of the project cost. The remaining project cost is to be funded by State Governmentbeneficiary industries and by a loan from financial institutions.

  • The guidelines suggest about the action to be taken by the State governments for minimization of usage of single-use plastics.

  • The Campaign focussed on awareness, collection and safe disposal of littered plastic.



Source: PIB


BOUGAINVILLE

Part of GS-1 GEography


Why in news?

Approximately 30 years after a decade-long brutal civil war in Bougainville, a tiny island in the Pacific, is going to the polls 23rd November,2019 to vote on its independence from Papua New Guinea.


Highlights:

  • Bougainville Island is the main island of the Autonomous Region of Bougainville of Papua New Guinea. This region is also known as Bougainville Province or the North Solomons.

  • If Bougainville’s people vote for its independence in the historic referendum, the world will get its newest and possibly smallest nation.

  • Bougainville Island is the largest of the Solomon Islands archipelago, forming part of the Northern Solomon Islands, which is politically separate from the sovereign country also called Solomon Islands.



Source: Indian Express


GENERAL SECURITY OF MILITARY INFORMATION AGREEMENT (GSOMIA)

Part of GS-2 IR


Why in news:


South Korea, on22 Nov, decided to suspend its plans to quit an intelligence sharing pact with Japan amid pressure from the US.


In a major policy reversal, South Korea has decided to continue a 2016 military intelligence-sharing agreement with Japan that it previously said it would terminate amid ongoing tensions over wartime history and trade.


Highlights:

Previously, South Korea had decided to discontinue the intelligence pact called the General Security of Military Information Agreement (GSOMIA) by November 22, unless Japan decided to review its export control measures.


The GSOMIA pact:

  • The idea to exchange intelligence between Japan and South Korea was first suggested by the latter in the 1980s.

  • In 2012, the two countries were expected to sign GSOMIA, but it was not due to public outrage in South Korea against the agreement.

  • The need for GSOMIA was felt amidst a growing threat from North Korea, especially when it started conducting nuclear tests and developing ballistic missiles.

  • The agreement was eventually signed in November 2016.

  • The US’ interest in this agreement stems from its need to forge alliances in the northeast to be able to analyse and respond to any threats from North Korea.

  • Significantly, it may be China’s perception that GSOMIA is an attempt by the US-Japan-South Korea trilateral alliance to contain Beijing, thereby maintaining a degree of opposition between this trilateral alliance and that of China-North Korea-Russia.


Japan and South Korea Relations

  • In recent years, the relationship between South Korea and Japan has deteriorated, given the territorial dispute over the Dokdo islands- known as Takeshima in Japan.

  • While South Korea controls them, the islands are claimed by Japan.

  • Japan maintains that South Korea’s claims for reparations and damages were settled with the 1965 treaty.



Source: Indian Express


RULE 12 OF THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA (TRANSACTION OF BUSINESS) RULES, 1961

Part of GS-2 Polity and Governance


Why in news:

To revoke President’s Rule(in Maharashtra), the government has used a special Section in the Union government’s Transaction of Business Rules, which allows for revocation of President’s Rule without Cabinet approval if the Prime Minister “deems it necessary”.


Highlights:

Rule 12 is usually not used to arrive at major decisions by the government.

It has been used in matters such as withdrawal of an office memorandum or signing of MoUs in the past.

At its emergency sitting on Sunday (November 24), the Supreme Court gave the government time until 10.30 am on Monday (November 25) to produce:

  1. the letter written by Maharashtra Governor Bhagat Singh Koshyari recommending the revocation of President’s Rule and inviting Devendra Fadnavis to form the government, and

  2. the letter that Fadnavis submitted to the Governor to demonstrate that he has majority support among the MLAs.

Ever since the dramatic events of Saturday morning, when the revocation of President’s Rule was notified and Koshyari swore in Fadnavis and Ajit Pawar of the NCP as chief minister and deputy chief minister of Maharashtra, there has been controversy over these issues.


In addition, the Congress has demanded to know the details of the Cabinet meeting, its time and attendees, which recommended to the President that President’s Rule should be revoked.


What is this rule, known as ‘Rule 12’?

  • Rule 12 of the Government of India (Transaction of Business) Rules, 1961, allows the Prime Minister to depart from laid down norms at his discretion.

  • Titled “Departure from Rules”, Rule 12 says, “The Prime Minister may, in case or classes of cases permit or condone a departure from these rules, to the extent he deems necessary.”


So, what happened in the case of Maharashtra?

  • Sources said that once Governor Koshyari had been informed that the BJP had the numbers to form a coalition government with the NCP, and after he had verified the claim, Raj Bhavan worked through Friday night to prepare the necessary recommendation for the revocation of President’s Rule.

  • At 5.47 am on Saturday, the notification revoking President’s Rule was published in the government gazette.

  • This indicated that the notification was actually signed by the President at some point earlier than that time.

  • At 7.50 am, the new chief minister and deputy chief minister were sworn in.



Source: Indian Express


PER CAPITA CONSUMPTION OF ELECTRICITY

Part of GS-3 Economy


Why in news:

During the Winter Session of Parliament, the Ministry of Power released data on India’s per capita consumption of electricity.


Highlights:

  • India’s per capita consumption of electricity is 1,181 kWh as of 2018-19.

  • The highest per capita consumption in 2018-19 is in Dadra and Nagar Haveli, at 15,179 kWh.

  • The Union Territory is followed by the states of Gujarat (2,378), Goa (2,274), Haryana (2,082) and Punjab (2,046).

  • The state with the lowest per capita consumption of electricity is Bihar, at 311 kWh, followed by the North-eastern states of Assam (341), Nagaland (356), Manipur (371) and Tripura (514).

  • The 5,251 previously un-electrified households in villages were electrified between 2017-18 and 2028-19 under the Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana scheme.

  • Arunachal Pradesh accounts for the highest number of such households at 1,134, followed by Odisha (925), Jharkhand (729), Bihar (596) and Assam (572).

  • As of April 28, 2018 all inhabited Census villages stand electrified, with the exception of seven states where over 19 lakh households were unwilling to be electrified earlier.

  • These households are now willing to get electricity connections.



Source : Indian Express


50th Conference of Governors Concludes at Rashtrapati Bhavan

Part of GS- 2 Polity and Governance


Why in news:

The 50th Conference of Governors concluded at Rashtrapati Bhavan today (November 24, 2019) while laying emphasis on tribal welfare and issues related to water, agriculture, higher education and ease of living.


Highlights:

  • Five Groups of Governors submitted their reports on these issues, and deliberated and identified actionable points in which governors can play a facilitating role.

  • The participation of Ministries and NITI Aayog has helped in making these discussions focused and actionable.

  • The President said that it is the fundamental duty of every citizen to protect the natural environment including water resources like forest, lake and river.

  • It is also a constitutional duty to continuously strive for excellence in all areas for the progress of country.

  • Individual and collective efforts for excellence in the areas of higher education, agriculture, inclusive growth and governance will give impetus to public welfare.

  • The first Conference was organised in 1949.

  • The two-day Conference discussed important thematic issues like tribal issues, reforms in agriculture, Jal Jeevan Mission, new education policy for higher education and governance for ease of living.



Source : PIB


WOODEN BREAST SYNDROME

Part of GS- Health


Why in news:

Broiler chicken can sometimes be hard to chew. Now, Researchers believe they have found the reason which is a condition called wooden breast syndrome.


Highlights:

  • The wooden breast syndrome is a metabolic disorder characterised by abnormal fat accumulation in the breast muscle tissue of broiler chicken.

  • When it affects broiler chickens, it makes the meat hard and chewy.

  • The researchers identified an enzyme called lipoprotein lipase as likely contributing to wooden breast syndrome in broiler chickens.

  • Lipase is crucial for fat metabolism.

  • The first stage of the condition involves inflammation of the veins in the breast tissue and accumulation of lipid around the affected veins.

  • Over time, this is followed by muscle cell death and replacement by fibrous and fatty tissue.

  • It is a costly problem that can render the birds unmarketable and cause losses for growers.


Broiler chicken?

  • A broiler is any chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) that is bred and raised specifically for meat production.

  • Most commercial broilers reach slaughter weight between four and seven weeks of age. Typical broilers have white feathers and yellowish skin.



Source : Indian Express


GOLDEN RICE

Part of GS-3 Economy


Why in news:

Bangladesh could become the first country to approve golden rice as it will soon take decision on the release of Golden Rice.


Highlights:

  • Golden rice was developed almost two decades ago by biologists from Switzerland and Germany as a way to prevent vitamin A deficiency in the developing world.

  • Lack of vitamin A is a leading cause of childhood blindness and can also make children more susceptible to death from other illness like measles.

  • Vitamin A: is made from beta-carotene, which is found in carrots, spinach, sweet potatoes, and other vegetables.

  • To create golden rice, scientists modified rice plants with beta-carotene genes from maize. By doing this, rice plants started to produce the rich orange-coloured pigment.

  • Then, the transgenic plants were donated to publicly funded research centres to develop their own versions of golden rice using local rice varieties.


Historical issues:

  • Since the inception of golden rice in the late 1990s, debates have raged over the transgenic crop, considered a genetically modified organism (GM), and it has struggled to gain approval.

  • Moreover, stringent international regulations such as the Cartagena Protocol have stymied approval of many GM crops.

  • In Bangladesh, the golden rice in question was developed at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) in Los Baños, Philippines.

  • This particular version is based on the dhan 29 rice variety widely grown in Bangladesh.

  • If everything goes to plan, farmers might be planting golden rice seed by 2021.



Source : Indian Express


REVIEW PETITION

Part of GS-2 Polity and Governance


Why in news:

Supreme Court will review Sabarimala judgment and a review plea is set to be moved over Ayodhya verdict too.


Highlights:

  1. Article 137 of the Constitution gives Supreme Court the power to review any of its judgments or orders.

  2. The court has the power to review its rulings to correct a “patent error” and not “minor mistakes of inconsequential import”.


Grounds for review petition:

  • In a 2013 ruling, the Supreme Court itself laid down three grounds for seeking a review of a verdict it has delivered-

  • the discovery of new and important matter or evidence which was not within the knowledge of the petitioner or could not be produced by him;

  • mistake or error apparent on the face of the record; or

  • any other sufficient reason which means a reason that is analogous to the other two grounds.


Who can file a review petition?


It is not necessary that only parties to a case can seek a review of the judgment on it.

Any person aggrieved by a ruling can seek a review.


What if a review petition fails?

  • In Roopa Hurra v Ashok Hurra (2002), the court itself evolved the concept of a curative petition, which can be heard after a review is dismissed to prevent abuse of its process.

  • A curative petition is also entertained on very narrow grounds like a review petition, and is generally not granted an oral hearing.



Source : Indian Express

Join Telegram for Channel to receive daily pdf or Download pdf

Recent Posts

See All

Daily Current Affairs : 10-Feb-2020

Major Topics Covered : MUKTOSHRI (IET 21845) MANDAMUS THWAITES GLACIER GURU RAVIDAS JAYANTI HELICOPTER SERVICES UNDER UDAN FLAGGED OFF BASMATI RICE EMERGENCY RESPONSE SANITATION UNITS (ERSUs) GENOME I

Free Resources

Preparing Mains 

UPSC Mock Test

Daily Reading

Join Us