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Daily current Affairs : 27-Nov-2019

Major Topics Covered :

  1. ASI-PROTECTED TEMPLES

  2. PARLIAMENT DISRUPTIONS

  3. FLOOR TEST IN THE MAHARASHTRA

  4. NATION REMEMBERS VERGHESE KURIEN ON NATIONAL MILK DAY

  5. 10 STATES UNEQUIPPED TO ENSURE FOOD SAFETY: FSSAI

  6. TRANSGENDER PERSONS (PROTECTION OF RIGHTS) BILL

  7. PARLIAMENT PASSES NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF DESIGN (AMENDMENT) BILL

  8. BILL OF RIGHTS AND ‘CONTRACT’ FOR THE WORLD WIDE WEB

  9. POLYDACTYLY

  10. NAGRIK KARTAVYA PALAN ABHIYAN



ASI-PROTECTED TEMPLES

Part of GS- 1 A&C


Why in news:

The Minister for Culture and Tourism Prahlad Singh Patel informed Lok Sabha about the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI)-protected temples in India.


Highlights:

  • A total 651 Hindu temples in India are designated as Centrally Protected Monuments under the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI).

  • There is no record with the central government of the number of Hindu temples under the control of state governments, Lok Sabha.

  • The largest number of Hindu temples under the ASI’s protection is in Karnataka, followed by Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, and Andhra Pradesh.

  • On March 12, 2018, then Minister of State (Independent Charge) for Culture Dr Mahesh Sharma had told Lok Sabha that in all, there are 3,686 centrally protected monuments/sites under the ASI.

Archaeological Survey of India (ASI):

  • The Archaeological Survey of India is an attached office of the Ministry of Culture.

  • It was founded in 1861 by Alexander Cunningham who also became its first Director-General.

  • Headquarters: New Delhi

  • It is responsible for archaeological research and the conservation and preservation of cultural monuments in the country.

  • Under the provisions of the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act (AMASR Act) of 1958, the ASI administers more than 3650 ancient monuments, archaeological sites and remains of national importance.



Source : Indian Express

PARLIAMENT DISRUPTIONS

Part of GS-2 Polity and Governance


Why in news:

The suspension of two Congress members by Lok Sabha Speaker Om Birla after unruly scenes in the House has brought back focus on the conduct of MPs, and related issues.


Highlights:

  • Rule 378 of the Rules for the Conduct of Business states: “The Speaker shall preserve order and shall have all powers necessary for the purpose of enforcing own decisions.”

  • Rule 373 says: “The Speaker, if is of the opinion that the conduct of any member is grossly disorderly, may direct such member to withdraw immediately from the House, and any member so ordered to withdraw shall do so forthwith and shall remain absent during the remainder of the day’s sitting.”

  • For recalcitrant members, Rule 374 says: “(1) The Speaker may, if deems it necessary, name a member who disregards the authority of the Chair or abuses the rules of the House by persistently and wilfully obstructing the business thereof.

  • “(2) If a member is so named by the Speaker, the Speaker shall, on a motion being made forthwith put the question that the member (naming such member) be suspended from the service of the House for a period not exceeding the remainder of the session: Provided that the House may, at any time, on a motion being made, resolve that such suspension be terminated.

  • “(3) A member suspended under this rule shall forthwith withdraw from the precincts of the House.”

  • According to Rule 374A: “(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in rules 373 and 374, in the event of grave disorder occasioned by a member coming into the well of the House or abusing the Rules of the House persistently and wilfully obstructing its business by shouting slogans or otherwise, such member shall, on being named by the Speaker, stand automatically suspended from the service of the House for five consecutive sittings or the remainder of the session, whichever is less: Provided that the House may, at any time, on a motion being made, resolve that such suspension be terminated.

  • “On the Speaker announcing the suspension under this rule, the member shall forthwith withdraw from the precincts of the House.”



Source: Indian express


FLOOR TEST IN THE MAHARASHTRA

Part of GS-2 Polity and Governance


Why in news:

The Supreme Court has ordered a floor test in the Maharashtra legislative Assembly on 27 nov. What happens after the date of the floor test is fixed? What will be the roles of the Governor, pro tem Speaker?


Highlights:

What is the issue:

  • A large group of Shiv Sena-NCP-Congress MLAs claiming to number 162 assembled at a Mumbai hotel in a show of strength on the eve of the Supreme Court’s decision on the parties’ petition seeking an immediate “floor test” in the Maharashtra Assembly.

  • The NCP MLAs were assured by party chief Sharad Pawar that the rebel Ajit Pawar was no longer the leader of the legislature party, and had no legal right to issue a “whip” to them to vote- upon pain of disqualification- for the government during the trust vote.

  • Early on (23nov) Saturday, President’s Rule was lifted in the state, and Governor Bhagat Singh Koshyari administered the oath of office of Chief Minister to Devendra Fadnavis, and to Ajit Pawar as his deputy.

  • The BJP and Ajit Pawar have claimed they have the support of enough MLAs from the NCP and other parties for a majority in the House- a claim that Sharad Pawar, the Sena, and Congress have rejected.


To begin with, what is a “floor test”?

  • A floor test is the determination on the floor of the House (in this case, the Maharashtra Vidhan Sabha) whether the Chief Minister commands the support of the majority of the MLAs.

  • This can be done by means of a voice vote, or by recording the vote of each MLA in the House.

  • This determination of majority is done in a sitting of the legislature, for which the legislature has to be convened.


So, who will order the convening of the Legislative Assembly?

  • Under the Constitution, the Governor convenes the session of the legislature.

  • But on multiple occasions in the past, the Supreme Court has ordered the convening of the Assembly to hold the floor test.


And who will conduct the floor test in the Legislative Assembly?

  • The proceedings of a legislature are presided over by the Speaker.

  • The election of the Speaker is usually the first order of business that newly elected MLAs undertake after taking their oath of office.

  • Often, in cases where an immediate floor test is ordered, the election of the Speaker is taken up after the conclusion of the floor test.

  • In the absence of a Speaker, the Governor appoints one of the MLAs to perform the duties of the Speaker.

  • This MLA is referred to as the pro tem Speaker.

  • He administers the oath of office to the other MLAs, and thereafter oversees the floor test in the legislature.



Source: Indian Express


NATION REMEMBERS VERGHESE KURIEN ON NATIONAL MILK DAY

Part of GS- 3 Economy


Why in news:

National Milk Day is celebrated to commemorate the birthday of Dr. Verghese Kurien, the father of India’s White Revolution.


Highlights:

  • World milk day is celebrated on 1st June in the entire world but in India National Milk Day is celebrated on 26th November.

  • The organized milk sector flourished in the Country after the Independence due to efforts of Dr. Kurien.

  • India is the world's largest producer of milk, contributing about 22 per cent of the world's total milk production with over 187.7 million tonnes of milk production every year.

  • India's milk output surpasses that of all the European Union countries combined, which is followed by the US, China.

  • He was a social entrepreneur who led Operation Flood- the world's largest agricultural dairy development programme.

  • It made India the world's largest milk producer from a milk-deficient nation, which doubled milk available per person and increased milk output four-fold, in 30 years.

  • Verghese Kurien played a key role in formation of Amul, which broke the local trade cartel 65 years ago, paving way for the dairy co-operative sector to flourish in Gujarat.

  • He served Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation (GCMMF) from 1973 to 2006.



Source: PIB


10 STATES UNEQUIPPED TO ENSURE FOOD SAFETY: FSSAI

Why in news:

At least 10 states in India are unequipped to ensure food safety, owing to scarcity of staff and food testing laboratory infrastructure, the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) said.


Highlights:

  • FSSAI says many of the poorly performing states have not been able to put in place full-time staff for food safety and do not have proper labs

  • Food regulator analyses total 106,459 samples across the country and finds over 15.8% food samples as sub-standard, 3.7% unsafe and 9% mislabelled during the year 2018-19

  • According to the apex food regulator, Chattisgarh, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Assam, Jharkhand, Odisha, Rajasthan, West Bengal, Telengana, and Uttarakhand are the worst performing states on food safety.

  • With its own admission to the shortfalls, the FSSAI said that many of the poorly performing states have not been able to put in place full-time officers for food safety and do not have proper food testing laboratories despite the food safety law coming into force over a decade ago.

  • However, the food regulator has also noted improvement in food safety in states such as Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Bihar, Jammu & Kashmir, Delhi and Chandigarh.

  • It analysed a total of 106,459 samples across the country and found over 15.8% food samples as sub-standard, 3.7 % unsafe and 9% mislabelled during the year 2018-19.

  • This is the first year the data has been compiled for unsafe, sub-standard and labelling defects separately.

  • According to the report, there has been a 7% increase in the number of samples analysed during 2018-19 as compared to 2017-18. 25% more samples were found non-conforming compared to the previous year.

  • Food borne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group of the World Health Organization (WHO) has identified 31 food borne hazards.

  • n its first estimates of the incidence, mortality, and disease burden, this group has found that the global burden of food borne diseases (FBD) is comparable to those of the major infectious diseases, HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis.

  • The most frequent causes of foodborne illness were diarrheal disease agents, particularly norovirus and Campylobacter spp. Diarrheal disease agents, especially non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica, were also responsible for the majority of deaths due to FBD. Other major causes of FBD deaths were Salmonella Typhi, Taenia solium and Hepatitis-A virus.

  • These facts call for urgent action by all stakeholders to improve food safety throughout the food chain with more coordinated efforts and greater focus.



Source: the Hindu, Live Mint


TRANSGENDER PERSONS (PROTECTION OF RIGHTS) BILL

Part of GS-1 Social issues


Why in news?

Parliament on 26th November, 2019, passed the Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Bill, 2019, with the Rajya Sabha approving it today by a voice vote.


Highlights:

  • Definition of a transgender person: The Bill defines a transgender person as one whose gender does not match the gender assigned at birth. It includes trans-men and trans-women, persons with intersex variations, gender-queers, and persons with socio-cultural identities, such as kinnar and hijra. Intersex variations is defined to mean a person who at birth shows variation in his or her primary sexual characteristics, external genitalia, chromosomes, or hormones from the normative standard of male or female body.

  • Prohibition against discrimination: The Bill prohibits the discrimination against a transgender person, including denial of service or unfair treatment in relation to: (i) education; (ii) employment; (iii) healthcare; (iv) access to, or enjoyment of goods, facilities, opportunities available to the public; (v) right to movement; (vi) right to reside, rent, or otherwise occupy property; (vii) opportunity to hold public or private office; and (viii) access to a government or private establishment in whose care or custody a transgender person is.

  • Right of residence: Every transgender person shall have a right to reside and be included in his household. If the immediate family is unable to care for the transgender person, the person may be placed in a rehabilitation centre, on the orders of a competent court.

  • Employment: No government or private entity can discriminate against a transgender person in employment matters, including recruitment, and promotion. Every establishment is required to designate a person to be a complaint officer to deal with complaints in relation to the Act.

  • Education: Educational institutions funded or recognised by the relevant government shall provide inclusive education, sports and recreational facilities for transgender persons, without discrimination.

  • Health care: The government must take steps to provide health facilities to transgender persons including separate HIV surveillance centres, and sex reassignment surgeries. The government shall review medical curriculum to address health issues of transgender persons, and provide comprehensive medical insurance schemes for them.

  • Certificate of identity for a transgender person: A transgender person may make an application to the District Magistrate for a certificate of identity, indicating the gender as ‘transgender’. A revised certificate may be obtained only if the individual undergoes surgery to change their gender either as a male or a female.

  • Welfare measures by the government: The Bill states that the relevant government will take measures to ensure the full inclusion and participation of transgender persons in society. It must also take steps for their rescue and rehabilitation, vocational training and self-employment, create schemes that are transgender sensitive, and promote their participation in cultural activities.

  • Offences and penalties: The Bill recognizes the following offences against transgender persons: (i) forced or bonded labour (excluding compulsory government service for public purposes), (ii) denial of use of public places, (iii) removal from household, and village, (iv) physical, sexual, verbal, emotional or economic abuse. Penalties for these offences vary between six months and two years, and a fine.

  • National Council for Transgender persons (NCT): The NCT will consist of: (i) Union Minister for Social Justice (Chairperson); (ii) Minister of State for Social Justice (Vice- Chairperson); (iii) Secretary of the Ministry of Social Justice; (iv) one representative from ministries including Health, Home Affairs, and Human Resources Development. Other members include representatives of the NITI Aayog, and the National Human Rights Commission. State governments will also be represented. The Council will also consist of five members from the transgender community and five experts from non-governmental organisations.

  • The Council will advise the central government as well as monitor the impact of policies, legislation and projects with respect to transgender persons. It will also redress the grievances of transgender persons.



Source: PRS


PARLIAMENT PASSES NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF DESIGN (AMENDMENT) BILL

Part of GS- Education


Why in news?

Parliament has passed the National Institute of Design (Amendment) Bill, 2019, with the Lok Sabha approving it on 26th November, 2019.


Highlights:

  • The Bill seeks to amend the National Institute of Design Act, 2014, which declares the National Institute of Design, Ahmedabad as an institution of national importance.

  • The Bill seeks to declare four National Institutes of Design in Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Assam, and Haryana as institutions of national importance.

  • Currently, these institutes are registered as Societies under the Societies Registration Act, 1860 and do not have the power to grant degrees or diplomas. On being declared institutions of national importance, the four institutes will be granted the power to grant degrees and diplomas.



Source: PRS


BILL OF RIGHTS AND ‘CONTRACT’ FOR THE WORLD WIDE WEB

Part of GS-3 S&T


Why in news?

Sir Tim Berners-Lee, inventor of the World Wide Web, has announced a “Contract for the Web” — aimed at saving the future of his invention.


Highlights:

The Web is at a tipping point, Berners-Lee wrote in an op-ed for The New York Times, and needs radical intervention from all stakeholders- governments, companies, civil society groups, as well as individual users.


What is the Contract for the Web?

  • Berners-Lee announced plans for this “Contract” nearly a year ago, and the World Wide Web Foundation, a non-profit he has founded, worked on it. The idea is to create a global plan of action for all stakeholders to together commit to building a “better” Web.

  • The Contract consists of nine principles - three each for governments, private companies, and individuals and civil society to endorse - with 76 clauses each.


Who has created this Contract?

  • Representatives from over 80 organisations, including governments, companies, civil society activists, and academics. The goal was to create a standard policy for a Web that benefits all. The nine principles emerged after a series of discussions over almost a year.

  • Participants included the governments of France, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, and Ghana; tech majors GoogleFacebook, Twitter, Microsoft, NordVPN, Reddit, Github, and DuckDuckGo. The Contract allows individuals to endorse it on the official website.


What are the principles in the Contract?

  • Governments will “Ensure everyone can connect to the Internet”, “Keep all of the Internet available, all of the time”, and “Respect and protect people’s fundamental online privacy and data rights”.

  • Companies will “Make the Internet affordable and accessible to everyone”, “Respect and protect people’s privacy and personal data to build online trust”, and “Develop technologies that support the best in humanity and challenge the worst”.

  • Citizens will “Be creators and collaborators on the Web”, “Build strong communities that respect civil discourse and human dignity”, and “Fight for the Web” so that it “remains open and a global public resource for people everywhere, now and in the future”.


How will the Contract be implemented?

  • The principles are lofty, and implementation will not be easy. Sharpe said companies that do not implement the Contract would be delisted from it - which may not be the strongest deterrent. However, she pointed out that companies had themselves reached out to be active participants in the Contract.

Implementation:

  • The principles are lofty, and implementation will not be easy.

  • The ‘Contract for the Web’ is not a legal document, or a United Nations document - though the organisation is in talks with the UN. It cannot currently bend governments or companies - even those that are on board - to its will.



Source: Indian Express


POLYDACTYLY

Part of GS-Health


Why in news?

Polydactyly/polydactylism or hyperdactyly is a birth defect that leads to extra digits on hands and feet.


Highlights:

  • Polydactyly/Polydactylism or hyperdactyly: a birth defect in which humans and animals have supernumerary fingers or toes. In other words, a person suffering from the congenital anomaly of polydactyly will have more than five digits in a particular hand or foot - a condition opposite to oligodactyly, in which the sufferer has fewer than five digits in a hand or foot.

  • Endemic:Polydactylism is reported in perhaps one or two children per 1,000 live births, and could be the most common abnormality of development seen in newborns worldwide.

  • Caused:The defect develops during the sixth or seventh week of gestation, when an irregularity occurs in the splitting of the fingers from the hand or foot, creating an extra digit. Causes are believed to be genetic, in some cases hereditary. The defect is also seen in cats, dogs, cattle, sheep, pigs, chickens, geese, and sometimes horses.

  • Treatment:The extra digit is only rarely fully functional; most often it is a small piece of soft tissue that sometimes also has a bone and, in a small number of cases, a bone with a joint. In most cases, the extra digits can be surgically removed; the procedure gets more challenging if there is bone with the skin and tissue, and most difficult when the bone has a joint.


Stigma in society:

  • The extra digit is only rarely fully functional; most often it is a small piece of soft tissue that sometimes also has a bone and, in a small number of cases, a bone with a joint. In most cases, the extra digits can be surgically removed; the procedure gets more challenging if there is bone with the skin and tissue, and most difficult when the bone has a joint.



Source: Indian Express


NAGRIK KARTAVYA PALAN ABHIYAN

Part of GS-2 Polity and Governance


Why in news?

Union HRD Minister Shri Ramesh Pokhriyal ‘Nishank’ launched the kartavya.ugc.ac.in portal on the occasion of ‘Constitution Day’ today, as a part of yearlong Nagrik Kartavya Paalan Abhiyan being observed throughout the country.


Highlights:

  • The portal will be used primarily for holding monthly essay competitions for students as well as other activities like quizzes, debates, poster making etc pertaining to Nagrik Kartavya Paalan Abhiyan.

  • Nagrik Kartavya Paalan Abhiyan will give direction to the youth of the country. This will make them aware that rights are automatically realized when we follow our duties religiously.

  • This principle will help the students to channelize their talents and capabilities in the right direction which will help them realize their mission with ease.


Source: PIB

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