• The supreme court granted women the right to permanent commission and
right to command the petition was filed by a group of 332 women officers, who
join the army from 1993 onwards.
• the petition was partially accepted by Delhi High court in March 2010, at the
time of filing the petition women officers were permitted permanent
commission in only to services the JAG and army education corps.
• In February 2019, the centre had issued notification where it allowed the
permanent commission to short service commission women officers of Indian
• Prime minister Narendra Modi had endorsed the idea of permanent commission
for women officers and announced the policy change in his independence day
• Out of 42253 officers in Indian army only 3.8% are women in 1992, women
started getting and role in Indian army, the services was just about for 5 years it
got an extension to the another five year became 10 years after that there was
extension of 4 years.
• The Indian army got the short service commission because of the management
problem of cadre base. This place is very wide and it gets narrow on the top to
support this base short service commission was introduced.
• 1972, it was the first time and woman has put across their ways to join Indian
army in supreme court.
• combat arms and combat services - they have to operate in front lines.
• they must be 50% women in parliament, women in it the better for the policies
of the country.
• Arguing against giving command appointments to women in army, the Centre has told the Supreme Court that women may not be able to meet the challenges and hazards of military service due to their "physiological limitations" and domestic obligations.
• The Centre has also talked about the possible unwillingness of male troops,
predominantly drawn from rural backgrounds, to accept a women in command of their units.
• The Apex Court also held that confining women officers to only "staff appointments" by denying them command assignments is a violation of equality principle under Article 14 of the Constitution.
• The SC observed that these submissions were based on "sex stereotypes premised on
assumptions about socially ascribed roles of gender which discriminate against women".
• Justice D Y Chandrachud in his judgment added that underlying these arguments is a
strong stereotype which assumes that " domestic obligations rest solely on women".
• The SC held this distinction to be unconstitutional, and held that PC must be extended to all women in these ten streams of service, regardless of their years of service.