1. Consider the following statements: (1) Self-governing village communities were created in India during colonial times in the form of ‘sabhas’. (2) Elected local government bodies were created after 1882; called as Local Boards. (3) Panchayats were established in a number of provinces following the enactment of the Government of India Act, 1919. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? (a) 1 only (b) 2 only (c) 2 and 3 only (d) None of the above Ans: (c) Explanation: ● Statement 1 is incorrect- Self-governing village communities existed in India from the earliest times, not only during British rule, in the form of ‘sabhas’ (village assemblies). In the course of time, these village bodies took the shape of Panchayats (an assembly of five persons) and these Panchayats resolved issues at the village level. ● Statement 2 is correct- In modern times, elected local government bodies were created after 1882. Lord Rippon, who was the Viceroy of India at that time, took the initiative in creating these bodies. They were called local boards. ● Statement 3 is correct: Under the Government of India Act 1919 local self government became a provincial subject. This trend continued after Government of India Act 1935. Source- XI NCERT Indian Constitution at Work; Page 179 2. In the context of ‘Cabinet of Central Government in India’, which of the following statements is/are correct? (1) The Cabinet takes decisions in the name of Council of Ministers. (2) The Indian Constitution mentions but does not define the Cabinet. Select the correct answer using the code given below: (a) 1 only (b) 2 only (c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2 Ans: (a) Explanation: Statement 1 is correct. Cabinet Ministers are usually top-level leaders of the ruling party or parties who are in charge of the major ministries. Usually the Cabinet Ministers meet to take decisions in the name of the Council of Ministers. Cabinet is thus the inner ring of the Council of Ministers. It comprises about 20 ministers. Since it is not practical for all ministers to meet regularly and discuss everything, the decisions are taken in Cabinet meetings. That is why parliamentary democracy in most countries is often known as the Cabinet form of government. Statement 2 is incorrect. The Constitution both mentions and defines the term Cabinet. Article 352 defines the term ‘Cabinet’ as the council consisting of the Prime Minister and other ministers of the Cabinet rank. Source: NCERT Class 9th: Democratic Politics-I; chapter 5-Pg 87. 3. Consider the following statements: (1) The Indian Constitution has mandated the transfer of functions from the State government to Local governments. (2) The State Finance Commission would review the distribution of revenues between the State and local governments. (3) ‘Technical training and Vocational Education’ is the subject listed under Eleventh Schedule. Which of the statements given above are correct? (a) 1 and 2 only (b) 2 and 3 only (c) 1 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3 Ans: (d) Explanation: The Constitution mandated the transfer of list of functions from the State government to Local Governments in 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendments. Hence statement 1 is correct The State Government is required to appoint a State Finance Commission once in five years. State Finance Commission would examine the financial position of the local governments in the State. The State Finance Commission also reviews the distribution of revenues between the State and local governments on the one hand and between rural and urban local governments on the other. Hence statement 2 is correct. Technical training and vocational education is the subject listed in Eleventh Schedule along with other important subjects like family welfare, poverty alleviation program, public distribution system. Source: XI NCERT Indian Constitution at Work; Page- 186. 4. With reference to ‘Fundamental Rights and Legal Rights’, which of the following statements is/are correct? (1) Both Fundamental Rights and other Legal Rights are protected and guaranteed by the Indian Constitution. (2) A person can directly approach the Supreme Court only for enforcement of Fundamental Rights and not in case of Legal Rights. (3) While restrictions can be put on Legal Rights by the Parliament, Fundamental Rights are absolute. Select the correct answer using the code given below: (a) 1 only (b) 2 only (c) 1 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3 Ans: (b) Explanation: Statement 1 is incorrect- While ordinary legal rights are protected and enforced by ordinary law, Fundamental Rights are protected and guaranteed by the constitution of the country. Ordinary rights may be changed by the Legislature by ordinary process of law making, but a fundamental right may only be changed by amending the Constitution itself. Statement 2 is correct- Under Article 32 and 226, a person can directly approach the Supreme Court or the High Court for enforcement of Fundamental Rights but for Legal Rights he must go through procedures provided in statute. Statement 3 is incorrect - Executive as well as Legislative actions can be declared illegal by the Judiciary if these violate the Fundamental Rights or restrict them in an unreasonable manner. However, Fundamental Rights are not absolute or unlimited rights. Government can put reasonable restrictions on the exercise of our Fundamental Rights. Source: 11th NCERT Indian Constitution at Work; Page no.28,29. 5. With reference to ‘Composition and Functions of Election Commission of India’, consider the following statements: (1) The Indian Constitution provides security of tenure to Chief Election Commissioner (CEC) but not to Election Commissioners. (2) The Chief Election Commissioner (CEC) has more powers and can overturn decisions made by Election Commissioners. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? (a) 1 only (b) 2 only (c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2 Ans: (d) Statement 1 is incorrect: Both Chief Election Commissioner (CEC) and other Election Commissioners have security of tenure provided in the Constitution. However, they can be removed before the expiry of their term by the President. Statement 2 is incorrect: CEC presides over Election Commission, but does not have more powers than the other Election Commissioners. CEC and other Election Commissioners have equal powers to take all decisions relating to elections in India Source: Indian Constitution at Work, Class 11(NCERT), page no 69.