1. The Government adopted the 'Disinvestment Policy', an active tool to reduce the burden of financing the PSUs. Which of following is/are main objectives of the disinvestment policy?
(1) To reduce the financial burden on the Government
(2) To improve public finances
(3) To encourage wider share of ownership
(4) To introduce competition and market discipline
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 1, 3 and 4 only
(c) 2, 3 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4
Answer: (d) Explanation: The new economic policy initiated in July 1991 clearly indicated that PSUs had shown a very negative rate of return on capital employed. PSUs had become inefficient and were continuing to be a drag on the Government, turning to be more of liabilities to the Government than being assets. Thus, to reform PSU, disinvestment was started to raise funds for meeting general/specific needs and diversify shareholding.
Source: XI NCERT: Indian Economic Development: Chapter 3: Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization
2. Which of the following is not a ‘poverty alleviation scheme’ in India?
(a) National Maternity Benefit Scheme
(b) Annapurna Yojana
(c) Valmiki Ambedkar Aawas Yojana
Answer: (d) Explanation: Ujwal DISCOM Assurance Yojana (UDAY) is the financial turnaround and revival package for electricity distribution companies of India (DISCOMs) initiated by the Government of India with the intent to find a permanent solution to the financial mess that the power distribution is in.
Source: XI NCERT: Indian Economic Development: Chapter 4: Poverty Page 72
3. Consider the following statements regarding the Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana-National Rural Livelihood Mission (DAY-NRLM):
(1) Under the scheme at least one-woman member from each identified rural poor household, is to be brought under the Self-Help Group (SHGs) network in a time bound manner.
(2) Skill development for wage employment as well as self-employment is an important component of this scheme.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Answer: (c) Explanation: Aajeevika - National Rural Livelihoods Mission (NRLM) was launched by the Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD), Government of India in June 2011. Aided in part through investment support by the World Bank, the Mission aims at creating efficient and effective institutional platforms of the rural poor, enabling them to increase household income through sustainable livelihood enhancements and improved access to financial services. NRLM set out with an agenda to cover 7 Crore rural poor households (at least one-woman member from each identified rural poor household), across 600 districts, 6000 blocks, 2.5 lakh Gram Panchayats and 6 lakh villages in the country through self-managed Self-Help Groups (SHGs) and federated institutions and support them for livelihoods collectives in a period of 8-10 years. In November 2015, the program was renamed Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana (DAY- NRLM). NRLM focuses on stabilizing and promoting existing livelihood portfolio of the poor through its three pillars –
• vulnerability reduction
• livelihoods enhancement through deepening/enhancing and expanding existing livelihoods options and tapping new opportunities in farm and non-farm sectors;
• ‘employment’ - building skills for the job market outside; and ‘enterprises’ - nurturing self-employed and entrepreneurs (for micro-enterprises).
Source: XI NCERT: Indian Economic Development: Chapter 4: Poverty 74
4. The Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) has recently launched the ‘Jaivik Bharat’ logo for Organic foods. Organic foods in India are regulated under which of the following Act?
(a) Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006
(b) Agricultural Produce (Grading and Marking) Act of 1937
(c) Bureau of Indian Standards Act, 1986
(d) Agricultural Produce Market Committee Act
Answer: (a) Explanation: The unified logo introduced by FSSAI is an identity mark to distinguish organic products from non-organic ones, supported with the tagline “Jaivik Bharat” at the bottom, for easy identification of organic food from India. FSSAI has the mandate to regulate manufacture, distribute, sell or import “organic foods” as per the provisions laid under Section 22 of the Food Safety Standards Act, 2006. Organic foods are regulated by Food Safety and Standards (Organic Foods) Regulations, 2017 notified under the provisions of the Act. AGMARK is a certification mark employed on agricultural products in India, assuring that they conform to a set of standards approved by the Government. The AGMARK is legally enforced in India by the Agricultural Produce (Grading and Marking) Act of 1937.
Source: XI NCERT: Indian Economic Development: Chapter 6: Rural Development Page 111
5. Consider the following statements regarding a 'Scheme':
(1) It is a women-oriented community-based poverty reduction program.
(2) It is being implemented in Kerala.
(3) It was inaugurated by the Prime Minister in 1998 at Malappuram.
The statements given above correspond to which of the scheme given below?
(d) Nai Roshni
Answer: (a) Explanation: Kudumbashree, the Kerala State Poverty Eradication Mission was launched on 17 May 1998 and inaugurated by the Prime Minister, Shri Atal Bihari Vajpayee. The Mission aims to eradicate absolute poverty within a definite time frame of 10 years under the leadership of Local Self Governments formed and empowered by the 73rd and 74th Amendments of the Constitution of India. The Mission launched by the State Government with the active support of Government of India and NABARD has adopted a different methodology in addressing poverty by organizing the poor into community-based organizations. The Mission follows a process approach rather than a project approach.
Source: XI NCERT: Indian Economic Development: Chapter 6: Rural Development Page 102.