Q1. Consider the following statements about Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA), 2005. (1) The Act provides legal guarantee of 100 days of wage employment to every person, male or female in rural areas in order to ensure livelihood security. (2) It has an inbuilt component of sustainable development and durability. (3) MGNREGA works can even be taken up on private land only if the landowner is also a job cardholder. Which of the statements given above are correct? (a) 1 and 2 only (b) 2 and 3 only (c) 1 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3 Answer: (b) Statement 1 is incorrect. MGNREGA 2005 provides a legal guarantee of at least 100 days of wage employment to every household (at least one able-bodied person in each rural household), not every eligible person to ensure livelihood security in rural areas. Statement 2 is correct. It is also aimed at sustainable development to address the cause of drought, deforestation and soil erosion. Only those components of admissible works that lead to creation of durable assets may be taken up under MGNREGA. Statement 3 is correct. For works to be taken up on private land and homestead, the individual landowner shall be a job card holder and also work in the project. Additional Information: All works shall be approved by the Gram Sabha and the Gram Panchayat. Items of expenditure that are recurring in nature and/or do not lead to creation of durable assets, are not permitted under MGNREGA. Source: IX NCERT Economics Chapter 3; Poverty as a Challenge Page 39
Q2. Which of the following pairs is/are matched correctly?
Price : Meaning 1. Minimum Support Price : Prices at which Food Corporation of India procures food grains. 2. Issue Price : Prices at which the government supplies food grains to poor. 3. Fair and Remunerative : Prices for purchase of sugarcane from the Price farmers by sugar mills. Select the correct answer using the code given below: (a) 1 only (b) 1 and 2 only (c) 2 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3 Answer: (d) Explanation: Pair 1 is correctly matched. The Food Corporation of India (FCI) purchases wheat and rice from the farmers in states where there is surplus production. The MSP is declared by the government every year before the sowing season to provide incentives to farmers for raising the production of these crops. Pair 2 is correctly matched. In order to distribute foodgrains in the deficit areas and among the poorer strata of the society, a price lower than the market price also known as Issue Price is used. Pair 3 is correctly matched. The Fair and Remunerative Price (FRP) is applicable for purchase of sugarcane from the farmers in the sugar season by the sugar mills. Additional Information: Both MSP and FRP are recommended by Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices (CACP) and declared by Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA). Source: IX NCERT: Economics: Chapter 4: Food Security in India Page 47
Q3. Consider the following statements about ‘National Food Security Act, 2013’: (1) It aims to provide nutritional security along with food security. (2) Its targeted beneficiaries are the people living below poverty line in India. (3) It has special focus on women, children and elderly. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? (a) 1 only (b) 1 and 3 only (c) 2 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3 Answer: (a) Explanation: Statement 1 is correct. National Food Security Act 2013 was enacted with the objective to provide food and nutritional security at affordable prices to people. Statement 2 is incorrect. The Act aims to cover up to 75% of the rural population and upto 50% of the urban population with subsidized food grains under Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS), thus covering about two-thirds of the population. Thus, it is not restricted only to people living BPL. Statement 3 is incorrect. The Act has a special focus on the nutritional support to women and children only. Besides meal to pregnant women and lactating mothers during pregnancy and six months after the child birth, such women are also be entitled to receive maternity benefit of not less than Rs. 6,000. Children up to 14 years of age are entitled to nutritious meals as per the prescribed nutritional standards. No special focus on elderly is provided for in the Act. Source: IX NCERT: Economics: Chapter 4: Food Security in India Page49
4. Which of the following statements about ‘Antyodaya Anna Yojana’ is/are correct? (1) It is targeted towards all the people living below poverty line. (2) It aims to provide 35kg of subsidized food grains to households irrespective of their size. (3) It includes all primitive tribal households. Select the correct answer using the code given below: (a) 3 only (b) 1 and 2 only (c) 2 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3 Answer: (c) Explanation: Statement 1 is incorrect. Under this scheme only the poorest among the BPL families are covered under the targeted public distribution system. Statement 2 is correct. 35 Kg of food grains are given to each eligible family at a highly subsidised rate of Rs 2 per kg for wheat and Rs 3 per kg for rice. This quantity is irrespective of the size of the household. Statement 3 is correct. In order to identify the households following criteria is adopted: - • Landless agriculture labourers, marginal farmers, rural artisans/craftsmen, such as potters, tanners, weavers, blacksmiths, carpenters, slum dwellers. • Persons earning their livelihood on daily basis in the informal sector like porters, coolies, rickshaw pullers, hand cart pullers, fruit and flower sellers, snake charmers, rag pickers, cobblers, destitute and other similar categories in both rural and urban areas. • Household headed by Widows or terminally ill persons or disabled persons or persons aged 60 years or more or single women or single men with no family or societal support or assured means of subsistence. • All primitive tribal households are included as beneficiaries under AAI. • All eligible BPL families of HIV positive persons in the AAY list of on priority. Source: IX NCERT: Economics: Chapter 4: Food Security in India Page 50
5. Which of the following dimensions is not considered while calculating Human Development Index by United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)? (a) Standard of living (b) Knowledge (c) Gender equality (d) Long and healthy life Answer: (c) Explanation: The Human Development Index is a statistic composite index of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development. A country scores a higher HDI when the lifespan is higher, the education level is higher, and the GDP per capita is higher. Source: X NCERT: Understanding Economic Development: Chapter 1: Development: Page 13.