1. Which of the pairs given below is/are correctly matched?
1. Hamada : Rocky desert
2. Eskers : Oval elongated hummocks composed of boulder clay
3. Kettle lakes : Small depressions formed by wind
4. Yardangs : Fluvio-glacial deposit by terminal moraines
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) 3 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4
Answer: (a) Explanation: Wind, Glaciers, rivers, waves etc all form different kinds of landforms. The landforms formed by glaciers are drumlins, eskers, kettle lakes, etc. Pair 2 is incorrect. Drumlins: Oval elongated hummocks composed of boulder clay Eskers: Long narrow and sinuous ridges formed by sub-glacial streams Pair 3 is incorrect. Kettle lakes: Depressions formed in outwash plains The landforms formed by wind are mushroom rocks, yardangs, hamada etc: Mushroom rocks: Rock Pillars eroded near the bases Pair 4 is incorrect. Yardangs: Vertical bands aligned in the direction of prevailing winds.
Pair 1 is correct .Hamada: A type of desert landscape consisting of high, largely barren, hard rocky plateaus, where most of the sand has been removed by deflation
2. Which among the following has become the ‘first fully organic’ State of India?
(a) Himachal Pradesh
(c) Jammu and Kashmir
(d) Arunachal Pradesh
Answer: (b) Explanation: Organic farming is an agricultural system that works in harmony with nature. It largely excludes the use of synthetic inputs (such as fertilizers, pesticides, hormones, feed additives etc.) and relies upon crop rotation, crop residues, animal manures, off-farm organic waste, mineral grade rock additives and biological system of nutrient mobilization and plant protection. Sikkim became India’s first fully organic state in 2016.
3. Carefully observe the following map: Which one of the following crops is grown in the shaded (grey colour) areas as shown in the India map?
Answer: (c) Explanation: Sugarcane is a crop of tropical regions. Under rainfed conditions, it is cultivated in sub-humid and humid climates. But it is largely an irrigated crop in India.
• In Indo-Gangetic plain, its cultivation is largely concentrated in Uttar Pradesh.
• Sugarcane growing area in western India is spread over Maharashtra and Gujarat.
• In southern India, it is cultivated in irrigated tracts of Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. India is the second largest producer of sugarcane after Brazil. It accounts for about 23 per cent of the world production of sugarcane. But it occupies only 2.4 per cent of total cropped area in the country. Uttar Pradesh produces about two-fifth of sugarcane of the country. But its yield is low in northern India. Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh are other leading producers of this crop where yield level of sugarcane is high.
4. Consider the following statements in the context of ‘Millets’:
(1) Maharashtra is the largest producer of jowar.
(2) The year 2018 has been declared as the year of millets by the Indian government.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Answer: (c) Explanation: Jowar, bajra and ragi are the important millets grown in India. Though, these are known as coarse grains, they have very high nutritional value. For example, ragi is very rich in iron, calcium, and other micro nutrients.
• Jowar is the third most important food crop with respect to area and production. It is a rain-fed crop mostly grown in the moist areas which hardly needs irrigation.
• Statement 1 is correct. Maharashtra is the largest producer of jowar followed by Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.
• Bajra grows well on sandy soils and shallow black soil. Rajasthan is the largest producer of bajra followed by Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat and Haryana.
• Ragi is a crop of dry regions and grows well on red, black, sandy, loamy and shallow black soils. Karnataka is the largest producer of ragi followed by Tamil Nadu. Statement 2 is correct. The government has declared 2018 as 'National Year of Millets’ to boost the cultivation of millets like ragi and jowar on a mission mode to achieve nutritional security.
5. A farmer cultivates a small plot of land using simple tools and more use of labour. A climate having large number of days with sunshine and fertile soils permits growing of more than one crop annually on the same plot. Rice is the main crop. Other crops include wheat, maize, pulses and oilseeds. It is prevalent in the thickly populated areas of the monsoon regions of south, southeast and east Asia.
The description is of:
(a) Shifting cultivation
(b) Intensive subsistence farming
(c) Commercial farming
(d) Vertical farming
Answer: (b) Explanation: Option (b) is correct. The description provided in question text is for ‘Intensive subsistence farming’. Shifting cultivation: Shifting cultivation is practised in the thickly forested areas of Amazon basin, tropical Africa, parts of south-east Asia and north-east India. These are the areas of heavy rainfall and quick regeneration of vegetation. A plot of land is cleared by felling the trees and burning them. The ashes are then mixed with the soil. Crops like maize, yam, potatoes and cassava are grown. After the soil loses its fertility, the land is abandoned and the cultivator moves to a new plot. Shifting cultivation is also known as ‘slash and burn’ agriculture. Commercial farming: In commercial farming, crops are grown and animals are reared for sale in market. The area cultivated and the amount of capital used is large. Most of the work is done by machines. Commercial farming includes commercial grain farming, mixed farming and plantation agriculture. Vertical farming: It is the practice of producing food and medicine in vertically stacked layers, vertically inclined surfaces and/or integrated in other structures (such as in a skyscraper, used warehouse, or shipping container).