1. Which of the following types of cultivation was developed by ‘European’ colonists?
(c) Mixed farming
Explanation: Plantation: Plantation agriculture was introduced by the Europeans in colonies situated in the tropics. Some of the important plantation crops are indigo (during 19th century), tea, coffee, cocoa, rubber, cotton, oil palm, sugarcane, bananas and pineapples. The characteristic features of this type of farming are large estates or plantations, large capital investment, managerial and technical support, scientific methods of cultivation, single crop specialisation, cheap labour, and a good system of transportation which links the estates to the factories and markets for the export of the products. Viticulture: Viticulture or grape cultivation is a speciality of the Mediterranean region.
Best quality wines in the world with distinctive flavours are produced from high quality grapes in various countries of this region. The inferior grapes are dried into raisins and currants. Collective farming: The basic principle behind this type of farming is based on social ownership of the means of production and collective labour. Collective farming or the model of Kolkhoz was introduced in erstwhile Soviet Union to improve upon the inefficiency of the previous methods of agriculture and to boost agricultural production for self-sufficiency. Mixed farming: A system of farming which involves the growing of crops as well as the raising of livestock. This form of agriculture is found in the highly developed parts of the world, e.g. North-western Europe, Eastern North America, parts of Eurasia and the temperate latitudes of Southern continents.
Source: NCERT - Fundamentals of Human Geography, Class XII: Page No 37
2. What do you mean by the term 'Truck Farming’?
(a) Farming wherein the farmers specialise in growing vegetables only
(b) Farming of fruits and flowers only
(c) Soil-less farming in a truck
(d) Abundant production of large carriers like trucks, containers, etc
Answer: (a) Explanation: Truck farming is a horticultural practice of growing one or more vegetable crops on a large scale for shipment to distant markets. It is usually less intensive and diversified than market gardening. The major truck-farming areas are in California, Texas, Florida, along the Atlantic Coastal Plain, and in the Great Lakes area. Among the most important truck crops are tomatoes, lettuce, melons, beets, broccoli, celery, radishes, onions, cabbage, and strawberries which are perishable in nature.
Source: NCERT - Fundamentals of human geography, Std 12th: Chapter - 5, Page No 40
3. The asteroid belt is found between ____________.
(a) Neptune and Pluto
(b) Mars and Jupiter
(c) Venus and earth
(d) Saturn and Jupiter
Answer: (b) Explanation: There are numerous tiny bodies that move around the sun apart from stars, planets and satellites which are called as asteroids. They are found between the orbits of mars and Jupiter. Our solar system is filled with a wide assortment of celestial bodies - the Sun, our eight planets, dwarf planets, and asteroids.
Asteroids are small bodies that are believed to be left over from the beginning of the solar system 4.6 billion years ago. They are rocky objects with round or irregular shapes up to several hundred km across, but most are much smaller. More than 100,000 asteroids lie in a belt between Mars and Jupiter. Scientists think that this debris may be the remains of an early planet, which broke up early in the solar system. Several thousand of the largest asteroids in this belt have been given names.
Source: NCERT Class 6, chapter 1, Page 6
4. Consider the following pairs:
Rainfall Type Feature
1. Convectional rain : It is common in polar regions
2. Orographic rain : An air mass comes across a mountain, ascends and cools down to precipitate
3. Cyclonic rain : Convergence of two different air masses
Which of the pairs given above is/are incorrectly matched?
(a) 1 only
(b) 3 only
(c) 1 and 2 only
(d) 1 and 3 only
Answer: (a) Explanation: Pair 1 is incorrectly matched: Convectional rainfall is most common in regions that are intensely heated, either during day, as in tropics, or in summer as in temperate interior. When the earth’s surface is heated by conduction, moisture-laden vapour rises because heated air always expands and becomes light and rises. It loses heat and consequently, condensation takes place and cumulous clouds are formed. With thunder and lightning, heavy rainfall takes place but this does not last long. Such type of rain is common in the summer or in the hotter part of the day. It is very common in the equatorial regions and interior parts of the continents, particularly in the northern hemisphere. Pair 2 is correctly matched: When a saturated air mass comes across a mountain, it is forced to ascend and as it rises, it expands; the temperature falls, and the moisture is condensed. The chief characteristic of this sort of rain is that the windward slopes receive greater rainfall. Pair 3 is correctly matched: Frontal (or Cyclonic) Rain is caused by cyclonic activity and it occurs along the fronts of the cyclone. It is formed when two masses of air of different temperature, humidity and density meets.
Source: Fundamentals of Physical Geography (NCERT 11th) - Chapter 11, Page No.- 101
5. Which of the following research stations of India have been set up in Antarctica?
(3) Dakshin Gangotri
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1, 2 and 3 only
(b) 1, 2 and 4 only
(c) 1, 3 and 4 only
(d) 2, 3 and 4 only
Answer: (d) Explanation: Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent. It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean.
The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth. The Arctic consists of the Arctic Ocean, adjacent seas, and parts of Alaska (United States), Finland, Greenland (Denmark), Iceland, Northern Canada, Norway, Russia and Sweden.
Land within the Arctic region has seasonally varying snow and ice cover, with predominantly treeless permafrost (permanently frozen underground ice)-containing tundra. Arctic seas contain seasonal sea ice in many places.
• Himadri is a research station of India in Arctic.
• Bharti is the recent research station in Antarctica established in 2012.
• Dakshin Gangotri was the first scientific base station of India situated in Antarctica, part of the Indian
Antarctic Programme. It is located at a distance of 2,500 kms (1,600 mi) from the South Pole. It is currently being used as a supply base and transit camp. It was succeeded by the Maitri, which was set up in a moderate climatic zone at a distance of 90 km and made operational in 1990.
Source: NCERT Class 6, Chapter 5, Page 33