1. Which of the following is an example of ‘block mountain’?
(a) Ural Mountains
(c) Vosges Mountains
(d) Mt. Kilimanjaro
Answer: (c) Explanation: Ural Mountains and Appalachians are old fold mountains found in Russia and North America respectively. They have low elevation. Mt. Kilimanjaro in Africa is formed due to volcanic activity. Vosges Mountain in Europe is an example of Block Mountains. Block Mountains: These are created when large areas or blocks of earth are broken and displaced vertically. The uplifted blocks are termed as horsts and the lowered blocks are called graben. The Great African Rift Valley (valley floor is graben), The Rhine Valley and the Vosges Mountain in Europe are examples. In India, the Vindhyas and Satpuras are examples of block mountains. Block Mountains are also called fault Block Mountains since they are formed due to faulting as a result of tensile and compressive forces. There are two basic types.
• Tilted block mountains have one steep side contrasted by a gentle slope on the other side.
• Lifted block mountains have a flat top and extremely steep slopes.
Source: NCERT Class 6, Chapter 6, Page 41
2. Which of the following are basic factors controlling formation of soil?
(1) Parent Material
(4) Biological Activity
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1, 2, 3 and 4 only
(b) 1, 3, 4 and 5 only
(c) 2, 3, 4 and 5 only
(d) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5
Answer: (d) Explanation: Pedogenesis is the process of soil development. Various factors which influence this process are: Parent material is a passive control factor in soil formation whose texture and structure determine the type of soil. Topography, a passive factor determines the amount of exposure of parent material surface. Topography has a strong influence on soil development. Soils on the side of hills tend to be shallow, due to erosional losses. Soils on the tops of hills tend to be deep, but lighter in colour, due to downward leaching losses. Soils in the valleys tend to be deeper, darker, and contain more horizons. This is due to increased material deposition from hillside erosion, material accumulation from downward leaching from the tops of hills, and the collection of greater quantities of water in the low lying areas. Climate, biological activity and time are the active factors in soil formation which play role in soil development, addition of organic matter and the soil forming process respectively. Soil organisms play a vital role in the degradation of organic matter and subsequent soil humus formation. When plants die, leaves are dropped onto the soil surface where microorganisms can decay plant tissue. The organic matter is used as an energy source for microorganisms, increasing their population in the soil. These organisms utilize easily digestible materials (like simple sugars and carbohydrates) found in the plant material, leaving more resistant materials (such as fats and waxes) behind. The material left behind is not easily decomposed; it comprises the humus found in soil. Humus acts as a gluing agent, essentially holding primary soil particles (sand, silt, clay) together to form secondary aggregates. These organisms and the humus they help create aid in the soil development and the formation of soil horizons.
Source: NCERT Class 11, Chapter 6, Page 55
3. ‘Duncan passage' is located between which two islands?
(a) Little Nicobar and Great Nicobar
(b) South Andaman and Little Andaman
(c) Car Nicobar and Little Nicobar
(d) None of the above
Answer: (b) Explanation:
• Duncan passage is located between South Andaman and Little Andaman.
• Pryce channel exists between Little Nicobar and Great Nicobar.
• Sombrero Channel and Kimios Bay exist between Car Nicobar and Little Nicobar.
• Ten Degree Channel lies between Andaman and Nicobar.
Source: NCERT class 11th, Chapter 1, Page 3
4. The Tropic of Cancer does not pass through which of the following States?
Answer: (d) Explanation: The Tropic of Cancer is the circle marking the latitude 23.5 degrees north, where the sun is directly overhead at noon on June 21, the beginning of summer in the northern hemisphere. Tropic of cancer passes through the following Indian states (in order from east to west): 1. Mizoram 2. Tripura 3. West Bengal 4. Jharkhand 5. Chhattisgarh 6. Madhya Pradesh 7. Rajasthan 8. Gujarat
Source: NCERT class 11th, Chapter 1, Page 3
5. Consider the following national parks:
(1) Jim Corbett National Park
(2) Dudhwa National Park
(3) Keoladeo Ghana National Park
(4) Simlipal National Park
(5) Kanha National Park
Select the correct order (from north to south) of national parks using the code given below:
(a) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
(b) 1, 2, 3, 5, 4
(c) 1, 3, 2, 4, 5
(d) 2, 3, 4, 5, 1
Answer: (b) Explanation: Jim Corbett National Park – Uttarakhand: Jim Corbett National Park is the oldest national park in India and was established in 1936 as Hailey National Park to protect the endangered Bengal tiger. It is a part of the larger Corbett Tiger Reserve. It lies in the Nainital district of Uttarakhand. Dudhwa National Park – Uttar Pradesh: The Dudhwa National Park in Lakhimpur-Kheri District of Uttar Pradesh, adjacent to Nepal border, is one of the major projects for wildlife preservation in India. Keoladeo Ghana National Park – Rajasthan: Keoladeo Ghana National Park formerly known as the Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary in Bharatpur, Rajasthan, India is a famous avifauna sanctuary that hosts thousands of birds, especially during the winter season. Over 230 species of birds are known to be resident. It was declared a protected sanctuary in 1971. It is also a World Heritage Site. Simlipal National Park – Odisha: Simlipal National Park is a tiger reserve in the Mayurbhanj district in the Indian state of Odisha. It is part of the Similipal- Kuldiha-Hadgarh Elephant Reserve popularly known as Mayurbhanj Elephant Reserve, which includes three protected areas — Similipal Tiger Reserve, Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary and Kuldiha Wildlife Sanctuary Kanha National Park – Madhya Pradesh: Kanha National Park is one of the tiger reserves of India and the largest national park of Madhya Pradesh. Its area is divided into two sanctuaries, Hallon and Banjar.
Source: NCERT Class 9, Chapter 5, Page 49.