1. Which of the following types of cultivation was developed by ‘European’ colonists?
(c) Mixed farming
Explanation: Plantation: Plantation agriculture was introduced by the Europeans in colonies situated in the tropics. Some of the important plantation crops are indigo (during 19th century), tea, coffee, cocoa, rubber, cotton, oil palm, sugarcane, bananas and pineapples. The characteristic features of this type of farming are large estates or plantations, large capital investment, managerial and technical support, scientific methods of cultivation, single crop specialisation, cheap labour, and a good system of transportation which links the estates to the factories and markets for the export of the products. Viticulture: Viticulture or grape cultivation is a speciality of the Mediterranean region.
Best quality wines in the world with distinctive flavours are produced from high quality grapes in various countries of this region. The inferior grapes are dried into raisins and currants. Collective farming: The basic principle behind this type of farming is based on social ownership of the means of production and collective labour. Collective farming or the model of Kolkhoz was introduced in erstwhile Soviet Union to improve upon the inefficiency of the previous methods of agriculture and to boost agricultural production for self-sufficiency. Mixed farming: A system of farming which involves the growing of crops as well as the raising of livestock. This form of agriculture is found in the highly developed parts of the world, e.g. North-western Europe, Eastern North America, parts of Eurasia and the temperate latitudes of Southern continents.
Source: NCERT - Fundamentals of Human Geography, Class XII: Page No 37
2. What do you mean by the term 'Truck Farming’?
(a) Farming wherein the farmers specialise in growing vegetables only
(b) Farming of fruits and flowers only
(c) Soil-less farming in a truck
(d) Abundant production of large carriers like trucks, containers, etc
Answer: (a) Explanation: Truck farming is a horticultural practice of growing one or more vegetable crops on a large scale for shipment to distant markets. It is usually less intensive and diversified than market gardening. The major truck-farming areas are in California, Texas, Florida, along the Atlantic Coastal Plain, and in the Great Lakes area. Among the most important truck crops are tomatoes, lettuce, melons, beets, broccoli, celery, radishes, onions, cabbage, and strawberries which are perishable in nature.
Source: NCERT - Fundamentals of human geography, Std 12th: Chapter - 5, Page No 40
3. The asteroid belt is found between ____________.
(a) Neptune and Pluto
(b) Mars and Jupiter
(c) Venus and earth
(d) Saturn and Jupiter
Answer: (b) Explanation: There are numerous tiny bodies that move around the sun apart from stars, planets and satellites which are called as asteroids. They are found between the orbits of mars and Jupiter. Our solar system is filled with a wide assortment of celestial bodies - the Sun, our eight planets, dwarf planets, and asteroids.
Asteroids are small bodies that are believed to be left over from the beginning of the solar system 4.6 billion years ago. They are rocky objects with round or irregular shapes up to several hundred km across, but most are much smaller. More than 100,000 asteroids lie in a belt between Mars and Jupiter. Scientists think that this debris may be the remains of an early planet, which broke up early in the solar system. Several thousand of the largest asteroids in this belt have been given names.
Source: NCERT Class 6, chapter 1, Page 6
4. Consider the following statements regarding tides: (1) The gravitational pull of the Sun impacting tides on the earth exceeds that of moon. (2) Spring tides occur at least twice a day. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? (a) 1 only (b) 2 only (c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2 Ans: (d) Explanation: The periodical rise and fall of the sea level, once or twice a day, mainly due to the attraction of the sun and the moon, is called a tide. The moon’s gravitational pull to a great extent and to a lesser extent the sun’s gravitational pull, are the major causes for the occurrence of tides. Hence, Statement 1 is incorrect. The position of both the sun and the moon in relation to the earth has direct bearing on tide height. When the sun, the moon and the earth are in a straight line, the height of the tide will be higher. These are called spring tides and they occur twice a month, one on full moon period and another during new moon period. Hence, Statement 2 is incorrect. The study of tides is very complex, spatially and temporally, as it has great variations in frequency, magnitude and height. Source: India Physical Environment, Class 11th (NCERT), Page no. 121-122.
5. Consider the following statements related to ocean currents: (1) A current is usually weakest at the surface and increases in strength with depth. (2) Wind influences the movement of ocean currents. (3) Due to the Coriolis force, the warm currents tend to move to the right in the northern hemisphere and to their left in the southern hemisphere. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? (a) 3 only (b) 1 and 3 only (c) 2 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3 Ans: (c) Explanation: Ocean currents are like river flow in oceans. They represent a regular volume of water in a definite path and direction. The strength of a current refers to the speed of the current. A fast current is considered strong. Usually, the currents are strongest near the surface and may attain speeds over five knots. At depths, currents are generally slow with speeds less than 0.5 knots. Hence, Statement 1 is incorrect. Ocean currents are influenced by two types of forces namely: • Primary forces that initiate the movement of water; (a) heating by solar energy; (b) wind; (c) gravity; (d) Coriolis force. Hence, Statement 2 is correct. • Secondary forces that influence the currents to flow. Warm currents move from low latitudes to higher latitude. The Coriolis force causes the water to move to the right in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern hemisphere. Hence, Statement 3 is correct.
Source: India Physical Environment, Class 11th (NCERT), Page no. 123-124.