1. Consider the following statements:
(1) Black soils are rich in lime, iron and alumina.
(2) Laterite soils are rich in iron oxide, lime and aluminium.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
The black soils are rich in lime, iron, magnesia and alumina. Hence, statement 1 is correct
In Laterite soils with rain, lime and silica are leached away, and soils rich in iron oxide and aluminium compound are left behind. Hence, statement 2 is incorrect. Value Addition
Alumina - the raw material required to produce primary aluminium is aluminium oxide, also called alumina. It is a white powder produced by the refining of bauxite. Some two tonnes of alumina are needed to produce one tonne of aluminium through an electrolytic process.
Aluminium - or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is a silvery-white, soft, nonmagnetic and ductile metal in the boron group. Black Soil: Black soil covers most of the Deccan Plateau which includes parts of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and some parts of Tamil Nadu. These soils are also known as the ‘Regur Soil’ or the ‘Black Cotton Soil’. The black soils are generally clayey, deep and impermeable. They swell and become sticky when wet and shrink when dried. So, during the dry season, these soils develop wide cracks. Thus, there occurs a kind of ‘self-ploughing’. Because of this character of slow absorption and loss of moisture, the black soil retains the moisture for a very long time, which helps the crops, especially; the rain fed ones, to sustain even during the dry season. Chemically, the black soils are rich in lime, iron, magnesia and alumina. They also contain potash. But they lack in phosphorus, nitrogen and organic matter. The colour of the soil ranges from deep black to grey.
Laterite Soil: Laterite has been derived from the Latin word ‘Later’ which means brick. The laterite soils develop in areas with high temperature and high rainfall. These are the result of intense leaching due to tropical rains. With rain, lime and silica are leached away, and soils rich in iron oxide and aluminium compound are left behind. Humus content of the soil is removed fast by bacteria that thrive well in high temperature. These soils are poor in organic matter, nitrogen, phosphate and calcium, while iron oxide and potash are in excess. Red laterite soils in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala are more suitable for tree crops like cashew nut. Laterite soils are widely cut as bricks for use in house construction.
2. Consider the following statements:
(1) They develop on crystalline igneous rocks in areas of low rainfall.
(2) They are fertile when fine grained but poor in fertility when coarse grained.
(3) Generally poor in nitrogen, phosphorous and humus.
The above mentioned properties are exhibited by which soil type?
(a) Black soil
(b) Red and Yellow soil
(c) Laterite soil
(d) None of the above
Red soil develops on crystalline igneous rocks in areas of low rainfall in the eastern and southern part of the Deccan Plateau. Along the piedmont zone of the Western Ghats, long stretch of area is occupied by red loamy soil. Yellow and red soils are also found in parts of Odisha and Chhattisgarh and in the southern parts of the middle Ganga plain. The soil develops a reddish colour due to a wide diffusion of iron in crystalline and metamorphic rocks. It looks yellow when it occurs in a hydrated form. The fine-grained red and yellow soils are normally fertile, whereas coarse-grained soils found in dry upland areas are poor in fertility. They are generally poor in nitrogen, phosphorous and humus.
Black soils are fine grained (not coarse grained) and are clayey. Therefore (a) is incorrect.
Laterite soils develop in areas of high rainfall. Therefore (c) is incorrect.
3. Which of the following pairs are correctly matched?
Crop : Growing season
1. Wheat : Rabi
2. Cotton : Rabi
3. Bajra : Kharif
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1 and 3 only
Wheat is a Rabi crop. Hence, pair 1 is correct. Wheat is primarily a crop of temperate zone. It requires a cool growing season and a bright sunshine at the time of ripening. It requires 50 to 75 cm of annual rainfall evenly distributed over the growing season. Hence, its cultivation in India is done during winter i.e. Rabi season.
Cotton is a Kharif crop. Hence, pair 2 is incorrect. Cotton requires high temperature, light rainfall or irrigation, 210 frost-free days and bright sun-shine for its growth. It requires 6 to 8 months to mature.
Bajra is a Kharif crop. Hence, pair 3 is correct. Bajra is a crop of dry and warm climate and is grown in areas of 40-50 cm of annual rainfall. It seldom grows in those areas where the annual rainfall exceeds 100 cm. The ideal temperature for its growth is 25°-30°C. Bright sunshine after light showers is very useful in early stages of its growth.
There are three distinct crop seasons in the northern and interior parts of India, namely kharif, Rabi and Zaid.
The Kharif season largely coincides with Southwest Monsoon under which the cultivation of tropical crops, such as rice, cotton, jute, jowar, bajra and tur is possible. The Rabi season begins with the onset of winter in October-November and ends in March-April. The low temperature conditions during this season facilitate the cultivation of temperate and subtropical crops such as wheat, gram and mustard.
Zaid is a short duration summer cropping season beginning after harvesting of rabi crops. The cultivation of watermelons, cucumbers, vegetables and fodder crops during this season is done on irrigated lands.
However, this type of distinction in the cropping season does not exist in southern parts of the country.
4. With reference to agriculture in India, what are ‘aus, aman and boro’?
(a) High yielding varieties of rice.
(b) Categories of beneficiaries under ‘Bringing Green Revolution to Eastern India.
(c) Three crops of rice grown in West Bengal in an agricultural year.
(d) Recently awarded GI tags to various varieties of rice in Kerala.
In Himalayas and north-western parts of the country, rice is grown as a kharif crop during southwest Monsoon season. But in southern states and West Bengal the climatic conditions allow the cultivation of two or three crops of rice in an agricultural year. In West Bengal, farmers grow three crops of rice called ‘aus’, ‘aman’ and ‘boro’.
Rice is a staple food for majority of population in India. It is a kharif crop which requires high temperature, (above 25°C) and high humidity with annual rainfall above 100 cm. In the areas of less rainfall, it grows with the help of irrigation. Though, considered to be a crop of tropical humid areas, it has about 3,000 varieties which are grown in different agro-climatic regions. These are grown from sea level to about 2,000 m altitude and from humid areas in eastern India to dry but irrigated areas of Punjab, Haryana, western U.P. and northern Rajasthan.
5. Consider the following pairs:
Slash and burn cultivation practice : Region of India
1. Dahiya : Haryana
2. Jhumming : North-East
3. Khil : Rajasthan
4. Koman : Odisha
5. Penda : Andhra Pradesh
Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?
(a) 1, 4 and 5 only
(b) 2, 4 and 5 only
(c) 1, 3 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 4 and 5 only
In Slash and Burn agriculture, farmers clear a patch of land and produce cereals and other food crops to sustain their family. When the soil fertility decreases, the farmers shift and clear a fresh patch of land for cultivation.
This type of shifting allows nature to replenish the fertility of the soil through natural processes. Land productivity in this type of agriculture is low as the farmer does not use fertilisers or other modern inputs.
It is known by different names in different parts of the country.
o ‘Bewar’ or ‘Dahiya’ in Madhya Pradesh, ‘Podu’ or ‘Penda’ in Andhra Pradesh, o ‘Pama Dabi’ or ‘Koman’ or Bringa’ in Odisha,
o ‘Kumari’ in Western Ghats,
o ‘Valre’ or ‘Waltre’ in South-eastern Rajasthan,
o ‘Khil’ in the Himalayan belt,
o ‘Kuruwa’ in Jharkhand, and
o ‘Jhumming’ in the North-eastern region
The ‘slash and burn’ agriculture is known as ‘Milpa’ in Mexico and Central America, ‘Conuco’ in Venezuela, ‘Roca’ in Brazil, ‘Masole’ in Central Africa, ‘Ladang’ in Indonesia, ‘Ray’ in Vietnam.