1. Which of the following statements is/are correct about Agenda 21?
(1) It is a declaration signed by world leaders at UN Conference on Environment and Development in 1892.
(2) It aims at achieving global sustainable development.
(3) One of the criticism of Agenda 21 is it did not encourage local agenda for sustainable development.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 2 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Agenda 21 is a comprehensive plan of action to be taken globally, nationally and locally by organizations of the United Nations System, Governments, and Major Groups in every area in which human impacts the environment. Statement 1 is incorrect as the conference was held in 1992 at UNCED at Rio De Janeiro, Brazil. Statement 2 is correct. It aims at combating poverty, environmental damage, diseases through global cooperation. Hence, addressing sustainable development. Statement 3 is incorrect. One of the high points of Agenda 21 is that it explicitly mentions for every local government to draw its own Agenda 21.
Source: NCERT class 10th, Page no- 3.
2. Consider the following pairs:
1. Bailadila hills : Bituminous Coal
2. Balaghat mines : Bauxite
3. Panchpatmali deposits : Mica
Which of the above pairs is/are correctly matched?
(a) 2 only
(b) 3 only
(c) 1, 2 and 3
(d) None of the above
India is endowed with a rich variety of mineral resources due to its varied geological structure. Most of the metallic minerals in India occur in the peninsular plateau region in the old crystalline rocks.
Bailadila hills of Chhattisgarh district are famous for very high-grade hematite ores. Balaghat mines of Madhya Pradesh produce 52% of India’s copper. Panchpatmali deposits in Koraput district are the most important deposits of Bauxite in Odisha which in turn is the largest bauxite producing state in the country. Also, over 97 per cent of coal reserves occur in the valleys of Damodar, Sone, Mahanadi and Godavari. Petroleum reserves are located in the sedimentary basins of Assam, Gujarat and Mumbai High i.e. off-shore region in the Arabian Sea.
Source: NCERT class 10th, page no 54-55.
3. Which of the following statements regarding drainage pattern is correct?
(a) A trellis pattern develops on a strongly jointed rocky terrain.
(b) In trellis pattern, tributaries join the main river at approximately right angles.
(c) A rectangular drainage pattern develops where hard and soft rocks exist parallel to each other.
(d) In dendritic pattern, streams flow in different directions from a central dome.
Drainage patterns are patterns formed by the streams, rivers, and lakes in a particular drainage basin. They are governed by the topography of the land, whether a particular region is dominated by hard or soft rocks, and the gradient of the land. Statement a is incorrect. Rectangular drainage pattern develops on a strongly jointed rocky terrain. Statement c is incorrect. Trellis drainage pattern develops where hard and soft rocks exist parallel to each other.
Statement d is incorrect. In radial pattern, streams flow in different directions from a central dome. Dendritic pattern is one in which river follows the slope of terrain. The streams and the river resemble the branches of a tree hence the name dendritic. Statement b is correct. In trellis pattern, tributaries join the main river at approximately right angles.
Source: NCERT class 9th, Page no- 18.
4. Consider the following statements about ‘El Nino’:
(1) It is the periodic development of a cold ocean current along the coast of Peru as a replacement of warm Peruvian current.
(2) Presence of this current leads to a decrease in sea surface temperature and hence weakening of the trade winds in the region.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
El Niño is complex weather phenomenon resulting from variations in ocean temperatures in the Equatorial Pacific region.
Statement 1 is incorrect. El Nino is the periodic development of a warm ocean current along the coast of Peru as a replacement of cold Peruvian current.
Statement 2 is incorrect. Presence of this current leads to an increase in sea surface temperature and hence weakening of the trade winds in the region.
El Nino is a Spanish word meaning ‘child’ referring to the baby Christ as it starts flowing during Christmas.
Source: NCERT class 9th, Page no 30.
5. Consider the following pairs about major landforms:
1. Stacks : Work of glaciers
2. Mushroom rocks : Work of wind
3. Levees : Work of sea waves
Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?
(a) 2 only
(b) 1, 2 and 3
(c) 1 and 2 only
(d) None of the above
Weathering, erosion and deposition are responsible for formation of several types of landforms. Different weathering agents create different features on land and ocean bottoms.
Work of a river : Flood plain, Ox bow lakes, meanders, Levees, waterfalls Work of sea waves : Sea caves, arches, stacks, cliffs
Work of wind : Mushroom rocks, sand dunes, loess
Work of glacier : Moraines
Source: NCERT class 7th, page no 15, 16, 17.