1. The process of taking out minerals from rocks buried under the earth’s surface is called mining. Consider the following statements in this context:
(1) For minerals at great depths, deep bores are made through open cast mining.
(2) In shaft mining, minerals that lie at shallow depths are taken out by removing the surface layer.
(3) In quarrying, minerals at the surface are simply dug out.
Which of the statements given above are incorrect?
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
A naturally occurring substance that has a definite chemical composition is a mineral. Minerals are not evenly distributed over space.
Statement 1 is incorrect. For minerals at great depths, deep bores are made through shaft mining.
Statement 2 is incorrect. In open-cast mining, minerals that lie at shallow depths are taken out by removing the surface layer.
Statement 3 is correct. In quarrying, minerals at the surface are simply dug out.
2. Consider the following statements regarding river ‘Indus’ and its tributaries?
(1) Satluj is the largest tributary of river Indus.
(2) Indus river flows in India only through Srinagar district of Jammu & Kashmir.
(3) Chenab is also known as Chandrabhaga.
Which of the statements given above is/are incorrect?
(a) 1 only
(b) 3 only
(c) 1 and 2 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Statement 1 is not correct-The Chenab is the largest tributary of the Indus. It is formed by two streams, the Chandra and the Bhaga, which join at Tandi near Keylong in Himachal Pradesh Statement 2 is not correct- The Indus flows in India only through the Leh district in Jammu and Kashmir. Statement 3 is correct- Chenab is also known as Chandrabhaga. It flows for 1,180 km before entering into Pakistan.
3. Match List-I with List-II and Select the correct answer using the code given below:
List-I : List-II River : Feature
A. Chambal 1. Originates near Rohtang Pass in India
B. Narmada 2. Flows through Shipki la pass
C. Satluj 3. Badland topography
D. Beas 4. Flows through rift valley
A B C D
(a) 2 1 4 3
(b) 3 4 2 1
(c) 3 4 1 2
(d) 2 1 3 4
The Chambal is famous for its Badland topography called the Chambal ravines The Narmada originates on the western flank of the Amarkantak plateau at a height of about 1,057 m. It flows in a rift valley between the Satpura in the south and the Vindhyan range in the north.
Beas is another important tributary of the Indus, originating from the Beas-Kund near the Rohtang Pass at an elevation of 4,000 m above the mean sea level. The river flows through the Kullu valley and forms gorges at Kati and Largi in the Dhaoladhar range. It enters the Punjab plains where it meets the Satluj near Harike.
The Satluj originates in the Rakas lake near Mansarovar at an altitude of 4,555 m in Tibet where it is known as Langchen Khambab. It flows almost parallel to the Indus for about 400 km before entering India, and comes out of a gorge at Rupar. It passes through the Shipki La on the Himalayan ranges and enters the Punjab plains
4. Which of the following rivers drain in the Arabian Sea?
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 2, 3 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4
Periyar is the second largest river which flows through Kerala and drains into Arabian sea.
Bharathaphuzha - also known as Ponnani, is the longest river of Kerala. Goa has two important rivers - Mandovi and Juari.
The Sharavati is another important river in Karnataka flowing towards the west. The Sharavati originates in Shimoga district of Karnataka and drains into the Arabian sea.
5. Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer using the code given below:
List-I : List-II
Type of drought : Definition
A. Meteorological Drought : 1. Characterized by low soil moisture that is necessary to support the crops, thereby resulting in crop failures.
B. Agricultural Drought : 2. Prolonged period of inadequate rainfall marked with maldistribution of the same over time and space
C. Hydrological Drought : 3. Shortage of water and as a consequence of ecological distress, damages are induced in the ecosystem.
D. Ecological Drought : 4. Availability of water in different storages and reservoirs like aquifers, lakes, reservoirs, etc. falls below what the precipitation can replenish.
A B C D
(a) 3 2 4 1
(b) 4 1 2 3
(c) 2 1 4 3
(d) 1 2 3 4
Meteorological Drought: It is a situation when there is a prolonged period of inadequate rainfall marked with mal-distribution of the same over time and space. Agricultural Drought: It is also known as soil moisture drought, characterised by low soil moisture that is necessary to support the crops, thereby resulting in crop failures. Moreover, if an area has more than 30% of its gross cropped area under irrigation, the area is excluded from the drought-prone category.
Hydrological Drought: It results when the availability of water in different storages and reservoirs like aquifers, lakes, reservoirs, etc. falls below what the precipitation can replenish.
Ecological Drought: When the productivity of a natural ecosystem fails due to shortage of water and as a consequence of ecological distress, damages are induced in the ecosystem.