1. Which of the following are the landforms of glaciated lowlands? 1. Boulder clay 2. Drumlins 3. Hanging valleys Select the correct answer using the code given below: a) 1 and 2 only b) 2 and 3 only c) 1, 2 and 3 d) 1 and 3 only Answer: a Explanation: Glaciation generally gives rise to erosional features in the highlands and depositional features on the lowlands. Landforms of glaciated lowlands are mainly depositional in nature, brought about by both valley glaciers and continental ice sheets. As such Boulder clay and Drumlins are considered as landforms of glaciated lowlands. So, statements 1 and 2 are correct. Hanging valleys are landforms of glaciated highlands. So, statement 3 is not correct. Therefore, the correct answer is a. 2. Consider the following statements: 1. A tectonic plate is a massive, irregularly-shaped slab of solid rock, composed of continental lithosphere only. 2. The movement of these tectonic plates is caused by convection currents in the molten rock in Earth’s mantle below the crust. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? a) 1 only b) 2 only c) Both 1 and 2 d) Neither 1 nor 2 Answer: b Explanation: A tectonic plate (also called a lithospheric plate) is a massive, irregularly-shaped slab of solid rock, generally composed of both continental and oceanic lithosphere. So, statement 1 is not correct. Plate tectonics is the scientific theory explaining the movement of the earth’s crust. Both continental landmasses and the ocean floor are part of the earth’s crust, and that the crust is broken into individual pieces called tectonic plates. The movement of these tectonic plates is likely caused by convection currents in the molten rock in Earth’s mantle below the crust. Earthquakes and volcanoes are the short-term results of this tectonic movement. The long-term result of plate tectonics is the movement of entire continents over millions of years. So, statement 2 is correct. Therefore, the correct answer is b. 3. Consider the following statement regarding the characteristic features of an Ecotone: 1. It is necessarily a wide junction between two or more diverse ecosystems. 2. It is a zone of tension showing a progressive increase in the composition of the communities involved. 3. Several species and the population density of some of the species is much greater in this zone than either community. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? a) 1, 2 and 3 b) 2 and 3 only c) 3 only d) None of the above Answer: b Explanation: Characteristics of Ecotone: ∙ It may be very narrow or quite wide. So, statement 1 is not correct. ∙ It has the conditions intermediate to the adjacent ecosystems. Hence it is a zone of tension. So, statement 2 is correct. ∙ It is linear as it shows a progressive increase in species composition of one incoming community and a simultaneous decrease in species of the other outgoing adjoining community. ∙ Well-developed ecotones contain some organisms which are entirely different from that of the adjoining communities. Sometimes the number of species and the population density of some of the species is much greater in this zone than either community. This is called edge effect. So, statement 3 is correct. Therefore, the correct answer is b. 4. Which of the following pairs of species and their IUCN status are not correctly matched? 1. African Cheetah: Vulnerable 2. Asiatic Cheetah: Endangered 3. Indian Leopard: Vulnerable 4. Asiatic Lion: Critically Endangered Select the correct answer using the code given below: a. 1, 2 and 3 only b. 2 and 4 only c. 1 and 3 only d. 1, 2, 3 and 4 Answer: b Explanation: Recently, the Supreme Court has lifted its seven-year-long stay on a proposal to introduce African Cheetahs (vulnerable) from Namibia into the Indian habitat. Court has now allowed to initiate the re introduction of foreign Cheetahs into the Palpur Kuno sanctuary in Madhya Pradesh on an experimental basis. In 1952, the Asiatic Cheetah (critically endangered) was officially declared extinct from India. So, statement 1 is correct and statement 2 is not correct . The Indian leopard is widely distributed on the Indian subcontinent and listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List because populations have declined. So, statement 3 is correct. Asiatic Lion’s current range is restricted to the Gir National Park and environs in the Indian state of Gujarat. It is listed as Endangered on IUCN Red List. So, statement 4 is not correct. Therefore, the answer is b. 5. Which of the following is the correct reason for the sub-arctic and tundra climate to have more peat layers than sub-tropical climates? a) Due to high bacterial activity b) Due to low bacterial activity c) Due to a high rate of evaporation d) Due to high precipitation Answer: b Explanation: The intensity of bacterial activity shows up differences between soils of cold and warm climates. Humus accumulates in cold climates as bacterial growth is slow. With undecomposed organic matter because of low bacterial activity, layers of peat develop in subarctic and tundra climates. In humid tropical and equatorial climates, bacterial growth and action is intense and dead vegetation is rapidly oxidised leaving very low humus content in the soil. Therefore, the correct answer is b.