1. In the context of the prehistoric art forms of India, the Paintings at ‘Bhimbetka’
belong to which of the following period(s)?
(1) Upper Palaeolithic
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 only
(b) 1 and 3 only
(c) 2 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Explanation: Earliest rock paintings in India have been reported from Upper Palaeolithic times (40000- 10000 BC). Richest paintings belonging to prehistoric times in India are found in Bhimbetka. Paintings from all periods from Upper Palaeolithic, Mesolithic (10000-7000 BC) and Chalcolithic (Around 3000 BC) are found here. (Thus, all the options are correct). Themes of paintings found here are of great variety ranging from daily life events to sacred and royal images. Bhimbetka rock paintings are located in the Raisen District in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh about 45 kilometres (28 mi) southeast of Bhopal. It is a UNESCO world heritage site that consists of seven hills and over 750 rock shelters distributed over 10 kilometres.
Source: XI class NCERT - An Introduction to Indian Art, Chapter 1, Page 3
2. Consider the following pairs:
Artefacts Found At
1. Lion Capital pillar : Dhauli
2. Rock Cut Elephant : Sarnath
3. The Sculpture of : Didarganj Yakshi
4. Lomas Rishi Cave : Barabar Hills
Which of the pairs given above are correctly matched?
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 3 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4
Explanation: Lion Capital pillar is located at Sarnath near Varanasi Uttar Pradesh and not at Dhauli. (Thus, pair 1 is incorrect).
Rock cut Elephant is located at Dhauli in Odisha. Ashokan major edict is located nearby. (Thus, pair 2 is incorrect).
The figure of Yakshis found at Didarganj near Patna. Yakshi or Yakshini are female attendants of Kuber. Yaksha (male counterpart of Yakshi) and Yakshi depict the popular form of sculpture along with court art. (Thus, pair 3 is correct).
Lomas Rishi caves are located at Barabar hills near Patna. These are rock-cut caves donated by Ashoka to Ajivika sect. (Thus, pair 4 is correct).
Source: XI class NCERT, An Introduction to Indian Art Chapter 3, Page 22-25.
3. Concerning Indian history, who among the following represents one of the past
Buddhas or Manushi Buddha?
Explanation: According to Buddhist tradition, there were 24 past Buddhas before Buddha. Out of these 24 Buddhas first one is called as Dipankara. So, option (d) is correct. Shakyamuni was another name of Gautama Buddha. So option (a) incorrect.
Rishabhdeva was first Tirthankara of Jainism. Hence, option (b) is incorrect.
Maitreya is future Buddha to be born as last Buddha. Hence, option (c) incorrect.
Source: XI class NCERT - An Introduction to Indian Art, Chapter 4, Page 30.
4. Which of the following pairs is/are correctly matched?
1. Ajanta : Andhakasurvada
2. Ellora : Ravana shaking Mount Kailash
3. Elephanta : Maheshmurti
Select the correct answer using the code given below: (a) 1 only (b) 1 and 2 only (c) 2 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3
Explanation: Andhakasurvada belongs to the Shaivite theme. At Ajanta, only Buddhist themes are depicted. In Hindu mythology, Andhaka often refers to a malevolent asura who is killed by Shiva for trying to abduct Parvati despite being their child mentioned in Shivpuran. (Thus, pair 1 is incorrect). We find an image of Ravana shaking Mount Kailash at Ellora caves. (Thus, pair 2 is correct).
Maheshmurti is located at Elephanta Caves. The Maheshmurti image dates back to sixth century CE. Central head is the main Shiva figure whereas the other two visible heads are of Bhairava and Uma. (Thus, pair 3 is correct).
Source: XI class NCERT An Introduction to Indian Art, Chapter 4, Page 43 and 59.
5. Consider the following statements regarding the ‘Nataraja’ Bronze statue of Chola
(1) Shiva’s dancing position is associated with destruction and creation of the
(2) Shiva is shown balancing himself on his left leg and suppressing the
apasmara, the demon of ignorance.
(3) Shiva’s four arms are outstretched, and the main right hand is posed in
(4) The upper right holds the damru to keep on the beat tala.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) 1, 2 and 3 only
(b) 1, 2 and 4 only
(c) 1, 3 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4
Explanation: Shiva is associated with destruction and creation of the cosmic world with which Nataraja’s dancing position is associated. (Thus, statement 1 is correct).
In this Chola period bronze sculpture he has been shown balancing himself on his right leg and suppressing the apasmara, the demon of ignorance or forgetfulness, with the foot of the same leg. (Thus, statement 2 is incorrect).
At the same time, he raises his left leg in bhujangatrasita stance, which represents tirobhava, that is kicking away the veil of Maya or illusion from the devotee’s mind. His four arms are outstretched, and the main right hand is posed in Abhaya hasta or the gesture suggesting. (Thus, statement 3 is correct).
The upper right hand holds the damru, his favourite musical instrument to keep on the beat tala. (Thus, statement 4 is correct). The upper left-hand carries a flame while the main left hand is held in dola hasta and connects with the Abhaya hasta of the right hand. His hair locks fly on both the sides touching the circular jvala mala or the garland of flames which surrounds the entire dancing figuration.
Source: XI class NCERT An Introduction to Indian Art, Chapter 7, Page 107.