1. In the context of Modern Indian history, the famous ‘Younghusband expedition’ is related to which of the following incident?
(a) Indo-Bhutan settlement of 1865
(b) The Second Anglo-Afghan war
(c) The British invasion of Tibet
(d) Annexation of Assam ‘duars’
Answer: (c) Explanation: The British expedition to Tibet, also known as the British invasion of Tibet or the Younghusband expedition to Tibet began in December 1903 and lasted until September 1904.The expedition was intended to counter Russia's perceived ambitions in the East and was initiated largely by Lord Curzon, the head of the British India government. At Lhasa, the Commission forced remaining Tibetan officials to sign the Treaty of Lhasa (1904), before withdrawing to Sikkim in September, with the understanding the Chinese government would not permit any other country to interfere with the administration of Tibet. Tibet was to pay Rs 25 lakhs as indemnity, Chumbi valley was to be occupied by the British for three years, and a British trade mission was to be stationed at Gyantse.
Source: Old Modern India NCERT by Bipan Chandra, chapter 10, Page 179
2. Consider the following statements with respect to the Industrial development under British rule in India:
(1) Most of the modern industries were owned or controlled by British capital.
(2) In cotton textile Industry, India had a large share from the beginning in the international market.
(3) Industrial progress in India was confined to sugar and cement in the 19th century and tea and coffee plantations in the 1930s.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 3 only
Answer: (a) Explanation: The machine age in India started with cotton textile, jute and coal mining industries in the 1850s. But all these industries had very stunted growth. Most of the modern industries were owned or controlled by British capital.(Thus, statement 1 is correct). For many products like tea, jute and manganese, India had a ready demand the world over. In cotton textile Industry, India had a large share from the beginning in the international market. (Thus, statement 2 is correct) On the whole industrial progress in India was exceedingly slow and painful. It was mostly confined to cotton, jute industries and tea plantations in the 19th century and sugar and cement in the 1930s. (Thus, statement 3 is incorrect.)
Source: Old Modern India NCERT by Bipan Chandra, chapter 11, Pages 146-151
3. Which of the following statements regarding the Theosophical Society are correct?
(1) Blavatsky and Olcott originally founded it at Adyar near Madras.
(2) Annie Besant became its President in 1907.
(3) It advocated the revival and strengthening of ancient religions like Zoroastrianism.
(4) They recognised the doctrine of the transmigration of the soul.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1, 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 4 only
(c) 2, 3 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4
Answer: (c) Explanation: Some western origin individuals were attracted to Indian thought and culture. Madam H.P. Blavatsky and Colonel M.S. Olcott originally founded the Theosophical society in 1875 in the United States of America (Thus, statement 1 is Incorrect). They later came to India and founded the headquarters of the society at Adyar in 1886. The movement gained some popularity after the election of Annie Besant as its president in 1907 when Olcott died. (Thus, statement 2 is Correct). The society advocated the revival and strengthening of the ancient religions of Hinduism, Zoroastrianism, and Buddhism. (Thus, statement 3 is Correct). The society believed in reincarnation and Karma. (Thus, statement 4 is Correct).Their beliefs were based on the philosophy of Upanishads and Samkhya, Yoga and Vedanta school of thoughts. Although rooted in traditional beliefs they aimed to work for the benefit of humanity with the spirit of brotherhood without any distinction based on caste, race, sex or colour.
Source: Old Modern India NCERT by Bipan Chandra, Chapter – 10, Page 175.
4. Consider the following statements regarding the participation of different sections of the society in the Swadeshi Movement of 1905:
(1) Students played a prominent part in the movement.
(2) Women for the first time registered mass participation in a national movement.
(3) There was no Muslim participation in the movement.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer: (b) Explanation: The Swadeshi Movement with its multi-faceted programme and activity was able to draw for the first time large sections of society into active participation in modern nationalist into the ambit of modern political ideas. The social base of the national movements now extended to include a certain zamindari section, the lower middle class in the cities and small towns and school and college students on a massive scale. (Thus, statement 1 is correct). Women came out of their homes for the first time in large numbers and joined processions and picketing. (Thus, statement 2 is correct). Though, the main drawback of the Swadeshi Movement was that it was not able to garner the support of the mass of Muslims and especially of the Muslim peasantry. But some of the Muslims like Barrister Abdul Rasul, Liaqat Hussain, Guznavi, Maulana Azad (who joined one of the revolutionary terrorist groups) participated in the movement. (Thus statement 3 is incorrect)
Source: Old Modern India NCERT by Bipan Chandra, Chapter 11, Page 195-197
5. Match the following political organisations before the formation of Indian National Congress with their founders:
A. East India Association 1. Pherozeshah Mehta
B. Indian Association of Calcutta 2. Justice Ranade
C. Poona Sarvajanik Sabha 3. Dadabhai Naoroji
D. Bombay Presidency Association 4. Surendranath Banerjee
A B C D
(a) 3 4 2 1
(b) 2 4 1 3
(c) 3 2 4 1
(d) 1 2 3 4
Answer: (a) Explanation: East India Association was an organization established by some Indian students in London on 1 October 1866 on the initiative of Dadabhai Naoroji. Its stated objective was to advocate for and promote the public interest. It worked towards presenting the correct information about India to the British Public and voice Indian grievances in the British press. Indian Association of Calcutta was founded in Bengal in 1876 by Surendranath Banerjea and Ananda Mohan Bose; it soon displaced the Indian League, which had been founded the year before, and rivalled the long-standing British Indian Association, which it regarded as a reactionary body of landlords and industrialists. It was the most important pre-Congress Nationalist organisation. Poona Sarvajanik Sabha was founded by MG Ranade in 1870 to represent the aspirations of the people to government. It published a quarterly journal to put forth the problems of people before the government. The Bombay Presidency association was founded by Pherozeshah Mehta, Badruddin Tyabji, and K.T. Telang in 1885.
Source: Old Modern India NCERT by Bipan Chandra, Chapter 9, Pages 158 and 159