1. Which of the following is NOT a feature of the ‘Gandhara Style’ of sculpture?
(a) Gandhara sculpture shows ‘Hellenistic’ elements
(b) Buddha is shown with thick curly hairs
(c) ‘Halo’ behind the head is a prominent element of Gandhara style.
(d) Expression of calmness is depicted with half closed eyes
Answer: (c) Explanation:
Gandhara style of art shows a mix of various styles like Bactria, Parthian and Greco Roman styles. The hellenistic style is a typical style belonging to Greco Roman art. In a Hellenistic art form sculptures are more naturalistic, and also expressive; there is an interest in depicting extremes of emotion. Thus, option (a) is correct. In Gandhara style, we find Buddha with thick curly hairs. In other styles of sculpture like Mathura and Sarnath, we find different hair styles like thin hair with hair knot. Thus, option (b) is correct. Halo behind the head of the image is not a prominent feature of Gandhara style. We find halo behind the head at Mathura and Sarnath school of sculpture making. There is also a difference, at Sarnath we find central part of the halo is plain without any decoration. In Mathura school of sculpture, we find large halo decorated with simple geometric designs. Thus, option (c) is incorrect. Buddha is shown with half-closed eyes feature similar to Sarnath school of sculpture. The half-closed eyes depicts calmness of the image. Thus, option (d) is correct.
Source: XI class NCERT An Introduction to Indian Art, chapter 4, Page 48-53.
2. The Harappans procured materials for craft production from various places. Match
the material and the place from which they were sourced:
Material : Place
A. Lapis Lazuli 1. Southern Aravali, North Gujarat
B. Carnelian 2. Khetri, Rajasthan
C. Steatite 3. Shortughai, Afghanistan
D. Metal 4. Bharuch, Gujarat
A B C D
(a) 1 2 3 4
(b) 3 4 1 2
(c) 2 1 4 3
(d) 4 3 1 2
Answer: (b) Explanation: The Harappans procured materials for craft production in various ways and from various places. The Harappans procured materials for craft production in various ways. For instance, they established settlements such as Nageshwar and Balakot in areas where the shell was available. Other such sites were Shortughai, in far-off Afghanistan, near the best source of lapis lazuli, a blue stone that was very highly valued, and Lothal which was near sources of carnelian (from Bharuch in Gujarat), steatite (from southern Aravali, north Gujarat) and metal (from Khetri, Rajasthan). Another strategy for procuring raw materials may have been to send expeditions to areas such as the Khetri region of Rajasthan (for copper) and south India (for gold). These expeditions established communication with local communities.
Source: Themes in Indian History Part 1, Theme 1, Page 12.
3. Consider the following statements:
(1) James Princep first deciphered this script.
(2) It was the script used to write in Prakrit language on earliest inscriptions.
(3) Most of the scripts used to write modern Indian languages, are derived from
(4) It is the script used in most Ashokan inscriptions.
The above statements hold true for which script?
Answer: (d) Explanation: Most scripts used to write modern Indian languages are derived from Brahmi, the script used in most Asokan inscriptions. From the late eighteenth century, European scholars aided by Indian pandits worked backwards from contemporary Bengali and Devanagari (the script used to write Hindi) manuscripts, comparing their letters with older specimens. Scholars who studied early inscriptions sometimes assumed these were in Sanskrit, although the earliest inscriptions were, in fact, in Prakrit. It was only after decades of painstaking investigations by several epigraphists that James Princep was able to decipher Asokan Brahmi in 1838.
Source: Themes in Indian History Part 1, Theme 2, Page 46.
4. In Ancient India, ‘Kutagarashala’ referred to:
(a) a place where the debate between philosophers took place
(b) a place where the head of a tribe resided.
(c) a place where children of high Brahman family were given education
(d) a place where grains were stored.
Answer: (a) Explanation: Kutagarashala – literally, a hut with a pointed roof – or in groves where travelling mendicants halted. Debates between philosophers took place here. If a philosopher succeeded in convincing one of his rivals, the followers of the latter also became his disciples. So, support for any particular sect could grow and shrink over time. Buddhist texts, mention as many as 64 sects or schools of thought. Teachers travelled from place to place, trying to convince one another as well as laypersons, about the validity of their philosophy or the way they understood the world. Thus, option (a) is correct.
Source: Themes in Indian History Part 1, Theme 4, Page 85.
10. With reference to the Vedic text, the term ‘Satamana’ refers to:
(a) A Group of Ministers
(c) An Assembly of village elders
Explanation: The terms ‘Nishaka’ and ‘Satamana’ in the Vedic text refers to coins. Thus, option (b) is correct).
Value Addition The life in the Later Vedic period became sedentary, and the domestication of animals and cultivation increased. Cattle were still the currency and principle movable property. The idea of private possession of lands started taking shape. Ironsmiths, weavers, jewellers, dyers, potters, are the new classes of artisans. Trade was also boosted. The Gold piece of specific weight Satamana was used as a currency rate. Use of Gold as currency is mentioned in Satapatha Brahman. Nishka was another popular currency. The other metallic coins were Suvarna and Krishnala. Barter system still existed. Money lending as the trade was prevalent. Money lenders were called Kusidin.
Source: Ancient India, R.S Sharma, 11th class, Old NCERT, Chapter 12, Page 80.