1. Which of the following pairs is/are correctly matched?
Veda : Content
1. Rig Veda : Spells to ward off evil
2. Sama Veda : Hymns in praise of nature
3. Yajur Veda : Rules of sacrifice
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 only
(b) 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 2 and 3 only
Answer: (b) Explanation: Veda comes from the root ‘vid’ which means “to know.” It is applied to a branch of literature considered to be “shruti” i.e. sacred knowledge. There are 4 Vedas: Pair 1 is incorrect: Rig Veda - It is the only source of information that belongs to early vedic period. It is a purely religious work and most of the hymns are invocations of Gods. Pair 2 is incorrect: Sama Veda - Its name is derived from ‘saman’, a song or melody. It consists of hymns taken from Rig Veda and set to tune for purpose of singing. Pair 3 is correct: Yajur Veda - It is the veda of formulae and consists of various mantras for recitation and rules to be observed at the time of sacrifice. Additional Information: Atharva Veda: It was compiled by the Sage Atharva. It is the Veda of formulae charms and spells to ward off evil and diseases.
2. Consider the following features about an inscription:
(1) It was the earliest inscription in chaste sanskrit.
(2) It described the achievements of Rudradaman-I.
(3) It gives evidence of presence of forced labour.
Which of the following inscription best suits the features given above?
(a) Besnagar Pillar Inscription
(b) Hathigumpha Inscription
(c) Junagarh Pillar Inscription
(d) Sarnath Inscription
Answer: (c) Explanation: Option (a) is incorrect. Besnagar pillar inscription from Vidisha talks about the pillar constructed by Heliodorus, an ambassador of Indo-Greek king of Taxila called Antialcides
to the court of Sunga ruler of Vidisha, Kasiputra Bhagabhadra also called as Bhagavata. The inscription is recorded in honour of the god of gods Vasudeva. Option (b) is incorrect. The Hathigumpha inscription in Prakrit in Udayagiri hills of Orissa records the achievements of Kharavela of Kalinga, a Chedi ruler. Option (c) is correct. The Junagarh rock inscription of Saka ruler of Ujjain, Rudradaman- l, dated 150 AD, describes the achievements of Rudradaman-l. This is the earliest inscription in chaste Sanskrit. This is the earliest epigraphic evidence of vishti or forced labour. This inscription informs us that Sudarsana lake was constructed by Pushyagupta at the orders of Chandragupta Maurya. Canals were taken out of this lake by Tusaspa, the provincial governor during Ashoka's time. This lake was repaired during the time of Rudradaman-l. Later, it seems that the lake was further repaired by Parnadatta during the times of the Gupta ruler Skandagupta. Option (d) is incorrect. The Sarnath inscription highlights the achievements of Kanishka, the Kushana ruler.
3. Consider the following features:
(1) The economy of this age was based on both plant cultivation and animal domestication.
(2) New kind of tools of small sizes known as Microliths emerged during this age.
(3) Mehrgarh, Burzahom and Belan Valley are important sites having remains of this age.
Which of the features given above are correct with respect to Neolithic Age in Indian subcontinent?
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 1 and 3 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer: (b) Explanation: Statement 1 is correct. The Neolithic age dating between 5000 BC to 1800 BC is characterised by the cultivation of plants and domestication of animals. The development of agriculture and cultivation of cereals transformed the nomadic hunters into sedentary farmers. This led to the beginning of village settlements, manufacture of new types of tools and greater control over nature for exploitation of natural resources. Neolithic tools such as ground stone tools, cells, adzes (a tool similar to an axe), chisels, axes, saws and burins (a tool with a narrow sharp face at the tip used for engraving and other purposes) have been found across India. Statement 2 is incorrect. Microliths appeared in the Mesolithic age. Due to climate change around 9000 B.C., when ice covers melted, there were large water bodies. Big hunts migrated into the forests which could not be hunted. In order to hunt small birds and fishes, the large tools of Palaeolithic were not useful. So microliths, that is tools of small size were invented. Statement 3 is correct. The earliest evidence of Neolithic settlements comes from Mehrgarh on the bank of the river Bolan in the Kachi plain of Baluchistan around 7000 BC
showing beginning of agriculture and domestication of animals. Crops cultivated include wheat, barley, plum and dates. Animals like cattle, goat and sheep were domesticated. Subsidence pattern is marked by mixed farming which rested on farming, herding supplemented by hunting. Additional Information: Two representative Neolithic sites from the time range of 2500 BC-1500 BC have been found from Kashmir valley on the Jhelum river, they are Burzahom (the place of birch) and Gufkral (the cave of the potter). Excavations yield great number of typical bone tools, wild grains of wheat, pea, barley bones of animals such as goat, sheep, cattle, etc. Excavations give indications of predominantly hunting economy in the beginning and later developing into agricultural economy. In Burzahom and Gufkral there are Pit Dwellings which are circular at top and rectangular at the bottom for protection from cold. At Burzahom, we have the characteristic feature of Dog burial along with human graves which is a cultural feature of Central Asian Neolithic culture. Neolithic sites also are seen in Belan valley in Mirzapur district of Uttar Pradesh. Significant sites of the region are Koldihwa, Mahagara and Chopani - Mando. Belan valley culture shows an advanced sedentary life characterised by well-defined family units, standard pottery tradition, specialised tool types as colts, adzes, chisels. Belan valley agriculturists were the earliest agriculturists producing rice. Chopani Mando provides the earliest evidence of the use of pottery. In the mid-Ganga valley region, excavations at Chirand, Chachar, Senuar show the emergence of sedentary village settlements at around 20001600 BC. Excavations indicate the cultivation of rice, wheat, barley and pea. Chirand and Senuar yield large number of remarkable bone tools.
4. Consider the following statements about the Indus Valley Civilization:
(1) Agricultural technology was well developed during this period.
(2) The Indus Valley economy was insulated during this time because the Indus Valley Civilisation neighbours were not as civilized and advanced.
(3) There is no evidence of presence of language or communication during this period due to absence of script or written records.
Which of the statements given above is/are not correct?
(a) 3 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 2 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer: (b) Explanation: Statement 1 is correct. Agricultural technology was well developed. Main crops that were cultivated were wheat and barley. We have evidence of cultivation of rice in Lothal and Rangpur only. Other crops included date mustard, sesamum, leguminous plants and cotton. We have evidence of mixed cropping from Kalibangan. The main crops wheat and barley were cultivated as rabi (winter) crops, and other crops were cultivated as Kharif crops (summer). Fields were not ploughed but dug up with a light toothed instrument. Indigo was evident from Rojdi in Gujarat. Well irrigation was known to the people of Alladinho in Sind. Traces of dams have been found from Dholavira in Gujarat along with evidence of irrigation canals. Statement 2 is not correct. Agriculture and Industry provided the basis for trade. Forest produce also supplemented them. There are evidences to show the presence of both Internal and Foreign trade. Internal trade developed first among various areas like Rajasthan, Saurashtra, South India, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra. Foreign trade with Mesopotamia or Sumeria (Iraq), Central Asia, Persia, Afghanistan, Bahrain is known. Main exports were several agricultural products and a variety of finished products like cotton goods, pottery, Ivory products etc. Teak was obtained from Gujarat, Amazonite from Hirapuri in Gujarat, Slate from Kangra and Rajasthan, Futshite from North Karnataka, Conch from Saurashtra, Deccan Amethyst from Maharashtra, Lead from Kashmir and South India, Tin, Jade and Copper from Baluchistan. Main imports consisted of Jade from Central Asia, Turquoise from Persia, Lapis Lazuli from Badakshan in Afghanistan, Gold and Silver from Afghanistan, Tin from Afghanistan. There are literary as well as archaeological evidences of trade links between the Sumerian and Indus people. The Sumerian texts refer to trade relations with Meluha' which was the ancient name given to the Indus region, and they also speak of two intermediate stations called dilmun (Bahrain) and Makan (Makran coast). Discovery of many Indus seals and goods in Mesopotamia and of Mesopotamian seals and goods in Indus cities shows evidence of contact. Harappans had trade relations with Mundigak in Afghanistan, Altyn Depo and Namazga in Turkmenistan and Tepe Yahya and Shahr-i-Shakta in Iran. Statement 3 is not correct. The language of Harappans at present is unknown as the script is not deciphered yet. But there are a number of evidences of scripts and use of language. The Harappan script was pictographic with fish as the most represented symbol. The number of signs of the Harappan script is known to be between 400 and 600. A number of seals with pictographs as well as a signboard inscription have been found from Dholavira, Gujarat. Additional Information: The Harappans were the first to use silver in the world. Indus people were the first to produce cotton in the world. Trade was based on the exchange of goods without the use of money. Coins are not evident.
5. Which of the following features are common to both Buddhism and Jainism?
(1) Usage of language of common people
(2) Moderate method of attaining salvation
(3) Non-belief in soul and rebirth
(4) Patronage by influential kingdoms
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 and 4 only
(b) 1, 2 and 3 only
(c) 1, 3 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4
Answer: (a) Explanation:
Statement 1 is correct. Buddhism used Pali and Jainism used Prakrit, both languages of common people, which helped in their spread. Statement 2 is not correct. The method for attaining salvation for Jainas was an extreme one, but for Buddhists it was a moderate one. Statement 3 is not correct. While both Jainism and Buddhism believed in rebirth, Jainism and not Buddhism believed in soul. Statement 4 is correct. While the Nandas patronized Jainism, the Mauryans patronized Buddhism. Both the kingdoms were influential. Additional Information: Other similarities:
• Both of them did not attach importance to varna/caste system and hence appealed to lower classes.
• Both of them followed a liberal policy towards women and allowed them to become monks.
• Both of them were against brahmanical domination and ritualistic interpretation of Vedas.
• Both of them were founded by Kshatriyas in Eastern India.
• Both of them preached similar principles like Truth, non-violence, celibacy and detachments.
• Both of them were non-theistic religions.
• Both of them believed in Karma