1. The Rashtrakutas ruled large parts of the Deccan and South India between 7th and 10th century. Which of the following statements is/are correct with respect to their rule?
(1) They followed a centralized administration
(2) The position of the king was hereditary and he was assisted by a council of ministers
(3) Fort was an important feature of the Rashtrakuta military administration
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 only
(b) 1 and 3 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer: (d) Explanation: The Rashtrakuta Dynasty ruled south India i.e. Karnataka from 725 -985 A.C.E. The word Rastra in Sanskrit means region and kuta indicates Chieftains. They were chieftains in central India before becoming a ruling dynasty. They contributed greatly towards art and architecture which was unique during this period. Statement 1 is correct: The Rashtrakutas followed a centralized administration. All officials were linked with the king and with the government. He was the fountainhead of justice and head of the military. Statement 2 is correct: Inscriptions and other literary records indicate the Rashtrakutas selected the crown prince based on heredity. The crown did not always pass on to the
eldest son. The most important position under the king was the Chief Minister (Mahasandhivigrahi). Under him was the commander (Dandanayaka), the foreign minister (Mahakshapataladhikrita) and a prime minister (Mahamatya or Purnamathya). Statement 3 is correct: The Rashtrakuta Dynasty consisted of infantry, countless elephants and several horsemen. The inspiring and majestic capital of Manyakheta was the most evident footing military geared up for war in a cantonment. The kings participated in the wars with enormous defense forces. Fort was an important feature of the Rashtrakuta military administration.
2. The Aihole inscription, which is considered a classic example of poetic excellence in Sanskrit, is related to which dynasty?
Answer: (a) Explanation: Option (a) is the correct answer. Aihole in Karnataka state, India, is known as the cradle of Indian architecture. It was the first capital of the Chalukyas where they built numerous temples dating back to the 6th century CE. There are many inscriptions at Aihole, but the inscription at Meguti Temple popularly known as Aihole inscription, witnesses many historical events of the Chalukyas. The inscription is written in sanskrit and in Kannada script. There is a mention about the defeat of Harshavardhana by Pulkeshin II, a mention about the victory of Chalukyas on Pallavas, and also mentions the shifting of the capital from Aihole to Badami by Pulkeshin.
3. The Tripartite struggle, for control of Northern India, which took place during early medieval era was fought between the Pratiharas, the Palas and the ________.
Answer: (c) Explanation: Option (c) is the correct answer. The Tripartite Struggle for control of northern India took place during early medieval era. The struggle was between the Pratihara Empire, the Pala Empire and the Rashtrakuta Empire- three of the most powerful states which had dominated east, north and central India. The object of political ambition at that time was to conquer and hold the city of Kannauj, which had become a symbol of imperial power perhaps owing to its connection with Harsha and with Yashovarman, who maintained this status for the city. It became a bone of contention between these three powers and much of their military activities was directed towards its conquest. Control of Kannauj also implied control of the upper Gangetic valley and its rich resources in trade and agriculture.
4. Match the following foreign travellers with the rulers in whose reign they came to India:
Travellers : Rulers
A. Al Beruni 1. Md. Bin Tughlaq
B. Ibn Batuta 2. Aurangzeb
C. Francois Bernier 3. Mahmud Ghazni
A B C
(a) 2 3 1
(b) 3 2 1
(c) 3 1 2
(d) 1 2 3
Answer: (c) Explanation: Option (c) is the correct answer. Al-Beruni was an Iranian scholar and polymath. He was from Khwarazm — a region which encompasses modern-day western Uzbekistan, and northern Turkmenistan. He came to India along with Mahmud Ghazni. He wrote the book ‘Tahqiq-i-Hind’. Ibn Batuta was a traveller from Morocco. He visited India during the reign of Mohammed Bin Tughlaq. He wrote his travelogue 'Rehla' throwing light on geographical, economic and social conditions of that time.
Francois Bernier was a French physician and traveller. He was the personal physician of the Dara Shikoh, the eldest son of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan and the emperor’s designated successor, and later worked for Daneshmand Khan, a nobleman in the court of Emperor Aurangzeb. He wrote 'Travels in the Mughal Empire', which is mainly about the reigns of Dara Shikoh and Aurangzeb.
5. Which of the following Pallava ruler suppressed the revolt of the Kalabhra rulers?
Answer: (c) Explanation: The Kalabhra dynasty ruled over the entire ancient Tamil country between the 3rd and the 7th century in an era of south Indian history called the Kalabhra interregnum. The Kalabhras, possibly Jain, displaced the kingdoms of the early Cholas, early Pandyas and Chera dynasties by a revolt. Information about the origin and reign of the Kalabhras is scarce. They left neither artefacts nor monuments, and the only sources of information are scattered mentions in Sangam, Buddhist and Jain literature. The rule of the Kalabhras of South India was ended by the counter-invasions of Pandyas, Chalukyas and Pallavas. There are other references to the Kalabhras in Pallava and Chalukya inscriptions. They were conquered by Pallava king, Simhavishnu.