1. The colonial government had drained out the wealth from India to England for which the Indians got no adequate economic or material returns. Which of the following were the means/forms of drain of wealth by the British government?
(1) Home charges
(2) Council bills
(3) Profits on foreign investment in India
(4) Salaries and pensions of British civil and military officials working in India.
(5) India as a supplier of cheap raw material to the British industries
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 and 5 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1, 4 and 5 only
(d) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5
Answer: (d) Explanation: The term ‘economic drain’ refers to a portion of national product of India which was not available for consumption of its peoples but was being drained away to Britain for political reasons and India was not getting adequate economic or material returns for it. The drain theory was put forward by Dadabhai Naoroji in his book “Poverty and UnBritish Rule in India”. The major components of economic drain are:
• The salaries and pensions of British civil and military officials working in India, interests on loans taken by Indian Government, profits of British capitalists in India were all being met by the revenues collected in India.
• The East India Company also provided military help to the native Indian Princes in their fight for power against their rival claimants. Large part of this money went into the personal pockets of the British. Some of it was used to buy Indian products which were sold across Europe, thus profit gained went into the pockets of the British.
• The expenditure of armed forces required to maintain the expansive empire across the world was partly met by Indians revenues and personnel.
• Unequal terms of trade: The main aim of British policy in India was to make her a valuable market of the home country and to transform India into a source of cheap raw material. India experienced deindustrialization over the half century following 1810 due to terms of trade shocks.
• Home charges: It represented the single biggest source of the direct drain of wealth, the expenses in British borne by the Indian treasury. These home charges included pensions to British Indian officials, army officers, military and other stores purchased in England. These were huge burden on the finances and contributed to a sustained and continuous deficit in the budget throughout 19th century.
• Council Bills: These were the actual means through which money was transferred. The would-be British purchasers of Indian exports bought Council bills from the Secretary of State in return for Sterling. The Council bills were then exchanged for rupees from the Government out of India’s revenues. Thus, exchanged rupees were used to buy Indian goods for exports.
• European Agency Houses and European Banks: With the rise of East India Company and gradual flood of European traders in India, the indigenous banking houses declined and were replaced by European Agency Houses and Banks. The Company servants opened these houses and banks after accumulating huge fortunes through their illegal private trade. Hence, all are correct.
2. With reference to economic critique of colonial policies, consider the following pairs:
Work : Author
1. Poverty and Un-British Rule in India : Dadabhai Naoroji
2. Economic History of India : Rajani Palme Dutt
3. India Today : Romesh Chandra Dutt
Which of the pairs given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer: (a) Explanation: The economic criticism of colonialism is one of the most important lines of thought in the history of Indian freedom movement. The leaders who developed this economic criticism were known as the ‘Moderates’ and are also popularly clubbed as the economic nationalists. The main proponents of economic nationalism:
• Dadabhai Naoroji (the Grand Old Man of India) wrote ‘Poverty Un-British Rule in India(1867)’. He also known as the high priest of the drain theory.
• Justice Mahadev Govind Ranade
• Romesh Chandra Dutt wrote ‘Economic History of India (1901)’.
• G. V. Joshi
• G. Subramania Iyer
• Gopal Krishna Ghokale
• Prithwis Chandra Ray
• Rajani Palme Dutt wrote ‘India Today(1940)’. Hence, only pair 1 is correct.
3. Indian languages and literature got boost due to the compositions by bhakti-sufi poets. Which of the following pairs are correctly matched?
1. Vakh : Kashmiri
2. Abhang : Marathi
3. Ulatbansi : Hindi
4. Padavali : Bengali
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1, 2 and 3 only
(b) 1, 3 and 4 only
(c) 2, 3 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4
Answer: (d) Explanation: Pair 1 is correct – Lalleshwari (1320-1392), lovingly called Lal Ded (mother lalla) is, along with Sheikh Nur-u-Din Wali, a beacon of creative and spiritual energy. She is considered a saint in Kashmir. Her poems, called as Vakh, are heavily metaphysical and philosophical; they provide spiritual solace in adversity and difficulty. Pair 2 is correct – Abhang is a form of devotional poetry sung in praise of Vitthala. The word "abhang" comes from a for "non-" and bhang for "ending" or "interrupting", in other words, a flawless, continuous process, in this case referring to a poem. By contrast, the devotional songs known as Bhajans focus on the inward journey. Abhangs are more exuberant expressions of the communitarian experience. Tukaram was a seventeenth century poet who lived in the town of Dehu, which is located near Pune. He was a popular poet and a leading figure in the Varkari Movement of the time, which sought to put the emphasis back on devotion and love towards God through his abhangs. Pair 3 is correct – Ulat Bansi literally means 'upside-down' language. It has similarities in structure with 'nonsense verse' and the absurd. They have been written in a form in which everyday meanings have been inverted. The main objective of these ulatbansis is to hint at the difficulties of capturing the nature of the Ultimate. Knowing the inadequacy of words, the Indian mystic Kabir moulds them into ulatbansis, paradoxical statements. Pair 4 is correct – The padavali poetry reflects an earthy view of divine love which had its roots in the Agam poetry of Tamil Sangam literature (600 BC–300 AD) and spread into early medieval Telugu (Nannaya, Annamayya) and Kannada literatures (Dasa sahitya). The accompanying literary movements were marked by a shift from the classical language of Sanskrit, to the local languages (apabhramsha) or derivatives, e.g. the literary language of brajabuli adopted by Vidyapati (14th century). Vaishnavism in Bengal was given a tremendous boost by Sri Chaitanya (1486–1533), whose intense spiritualism infected many and started a movement across many regions of India. Vaishnava Padavalis were the chief instrument. It was such poetry that established Bengali as a significant literary language. The earliest work in what may be considered a distinctively Bengali style is the Shrikṛṣṇa-kirtana, a long padqvali poem by Chandidas, which is dated to the early 15th century.
4. Buddhist literature is a window to contemporary life in ancient India. Various kings, monks, traders and common people find their mention in it. Who among the following was not the contemporary of Buddha? (a) Bimbisara
Answer: (d) Explanation: Option(a) is correct – Bimbisara (543-491 BCE) was one of the early kings of the kingdom of Magadha. His expansion of the kingdom, especially his annexation of the kingdom of Anga to the east, is considered to have laid the foundations for the later expansion of the Mauryan Empire. He is also known for his cultural achievements and was a great friend and protector of the Buddha. King Bimbisara gave a park with a quiet bamboo grove for the use of the Buddha and his disciples. This park was named the Bamboo Grove. The Buddha spent three successive rainy seasons there and three other rainy seasons later. Bimbisara built the city of Rajagriha, famous in Buddhist writings. According to Buddhist scriptures, King Bimbisara met the Buddha for the first time prior to the Buddha's enlightenment, and later became an important disciple that featured prominently in certain Buddhist suttas. He is recorded to have attained sotapannahood, a degree of enlightenment in Buddhist teachings. Option (b) is correct – Jivaka was the most celebrated doctor in India during the Buddha's time. He was called upon to treat kings and princes, including King Bimbisara himself. But of all the distinguished people Jivaka attended to, his greatest pleasure was to attend to the Buddha. Option (c) is correct – Anandapindaka was millionaire of Shravasti city and contemporary of Buddha. He built a monastery in which the Buddha was to spend many rainy seasons and which came to be known as the Jetavana Monastery. The Buddha spent the major part of his life in these quiet surroundings and most of his discourses were delivered there. Option (d) is incorrect – Bindusara (r. c. 297 – c. 273 BCE) was the second Mauryan emperor of India. He was the son of the dynasty's founder Chandragupta, and the father of its most famous ruler Ashoka. Bindusara consolidated the empire created by his father.
5. In last couple of decades, Vipassana has become a favoured form of meditation across India. It is a Buddhist form of meditation. To which of the following Buddhist sects it originally belonged?
(c) Tibetan Buddhism
(d) Sahajayana Buddhism
Answer: (a) Explanation: Vipassana (insight) in the Buddhist tradition is insight into the correct nature of reality. Meditation practice in the Theravada tradition ended in the 10th century, but was re- introduced in Myanmar (Burma) in the 18th century, based on contemporary readings of the Satipatthana-sutta, the Visuddhimagga, and other texts. It became of central importance in the 20th century Vipassana movement. In the Theravada tradition alone, there are over fifty methods for developing mindfulness. The most influential presentation though, is that of the 5th Century Visuddhimagga ('Path of Purification') of Buddhaghoṣa, which describes forty meditation subjects. Mahayana Buddhism includes numerous schools of practice, which each draw upon various Buddhist sutras, philosophical treatises, and commentaries. Accordingly, each school has its own meditation methods for the purpose of developing samadhi and prajna, with the goal of ultimately attaining enlightenment. The word Zen is derived from the Japanese pronunciation of the word Dhyana – meditative state. Central to Zen is the practice of meditation. In China, the word dhyana became Chan. the practice of meditation entered into Chinese through the translations of An Shigao (c. 148–180 CE), mainly the Dhyana sutras, which were influential early meditation texts. In Tibetan Buddhism, there are thousands of visualization meditations. Particularly influential from the twentieth century onward has been the "New Burmese Method" or "Vipassana School". In the 19th and 20th century the Theravada traditions in Burma, Thailand and Sri Lanka were rejuvenated in response to western colonialism. They were rallying points in the struggle against western hegemonism, giving voice to traditional values and culture. Most influential in this renewed interest was the "new Burmese method". It emphasizes the use of vipassana to gain insight into the three marks of existence as the main means to attain wisdom and eventually awakening. The primary source of the movement's practice is the commentarial writings of Buddhaghosa, particularly the Visuddhimagga. Vipassana movement traditions have offered meditation programs in some prisons. One notable example was in 1993 when Kiran Bedi, a reformist Inspector General of India's prisons tried it in India's largest prison Tihar Jail. This program was said to have dramatically changed the behaviour of inmates and jailers alike. Inmates who completed the ten-day course were less violent and had a lower recidivism rate than other inmates