1. Consider the following statements in the context of Rogan art:
1. It is a famous art form of Srinagar, Kashmir.
2. It is a form of textile painting which uses a rich, brightly coloured paint made from castor oil and natural colours.
3. The ‘Tree of Life’ design is the most famous design in Rogan painting.
Which of the above statements are correct?
a) 1 and 2 only
b) 2 and 3 only
c) 1 and 3 only
d) 1, 2 and 3
The word Rogan means “Oil” in Persian. With origins in Persia, it came to Kutch around 300 years ago. This rare craft is practised by a lone Muslim family, the Khatris of Nirona Village, Gujarat. So, statement (1) is not correct.
Rogan is a form of textile painting which uses a rich, brightly coloured paint made from castor oil and natural colours. Castor is a crop commonly grown in the Kutch region of Gujarat and the artists source it from the local farmers. So, statement (2) is correct.
The intricate motifs – geometric flowers, peacocks, the tree of life, etc. – are drawn from the history and folk culture of the Kutch region.
The castor paste is mixed with natural colours and then is drawn out into a fine ‘thread’ with a metal stylus or ‘Kalam’. This metal rod never comes in contact with the fabric. The artisans then carefully twist the paint across the cloth into motifs and patterns.
Next, the fabric is folded thereby printing its mirror image. The finer details are then added thus completing the Rogan painting. The ‘Tree of Life’ design is the most famous design in Rogan painting. It is inspired by traditional Persian designs. So, statement (3) is correct.
Therefore, the correct answer is b.
2. Which of the following best describes the terms 'Sreni', 'Nigama', 'Puga', used during ancient period?
a) Corporate organizations
b) Types of coins
c) Categories of agriculture lands
d) Educational centres
The literary and the archaeological sources of the ancient period refer to certain terms such as Vaisya, Sreni, nigama, gama, puga Sarthavahas Vrata Kula, Jdti, Vanik, Setthis, Gahapati and samgho, which may help us in studying about different constituent elements of corporate Organisation. In Panini’s Astadhyayi there are terms such as, puga, vrata and samgha which bear some cooperative connotation but they have more political and administrative significance rather than economic.
Therefore, the correct answer is a.
3. Which of the following are correctly matched in the context of Mauryan administration?
Name of official : Name of department
1. Sannidhata A. Administrative Personnel
2. Guddhapurusha B. Treasury
3. Amatyas C. Espionage
4. Samharta D. Revenue Collection
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
a) 1 - D, 2 – C, 3 – A, 4 – B
b) 1 – B, 2 – C, 3 – D, 4 – A
c) 1 – B, 2 – C, 3 – A, 4 – D
d) 1 – D, 2 – C, 3 – B, 4 - A
∙ Sannidhata was the treasurer and was responsible for the storage of royal treasure, and of the state income both in cash and kind.
∙ The espionage department was manned by Guddhapurushas (secret agents) under the control of mahamatyapasarpa, both stationary (Samsthan) and wandering (Sanchari). ∙ Amatyas were some sort of administrative personnel or civil servants who filled the highest administrative and judicial appointments. Their role and functions were very important, for all governmental work proceeded from them.
∙ Samaharta was in charge of the collection of revenue from various parts of the kingdom. Therefore, the correct answer is b.
4. Which of the following doctrine preached “The soul even when united with the Supreme God remained distinct”?
All four are sub-traditions of Vedanta or Uttar Mimansa philosophy which is the most prominent of the six schools of Hindu philosophy.
∙ ‘Advaita’ is the doctrine of the oneness of the individual soul and the Supreme God which is the Ultimate Reality
∙ ‘Dvaita’ or dualism states that God and soul are distinct
∙ ‘Vishishtadvaita’ or qualified oneness means that the soul even when united with the Supreme God remained distinct
∙ ‘Shuddhaadvaita’ or ‘Pushtimarga’ is purely non-dual philosophy propounded by Vallabhacharya. Therefore, the correct answer is c.
5. Consider the following pairs:
1. Tata Vadya - Stringed instruments
2. The Sushira Vadya - Solid instruments which do not require tuning.
3. The Avanaddha Vadya - Percussion instruments
4. The Ghana Vadya - Wind instruments
Which of the pairs given above are not correctly matched?
a) 1 and 2 only
b) 2 and 4 only
c) 1 and 3 only
d) 2 and 3 only
Explanation: In the Natya Shastra, compiled by Bharat Muni dated 200 B.C.-200 A.D., musical instruments have been divided into four main categories on the basis of how sound is produced. (i) The Tata Vadya or Chordophones- Stringed instruments. So, pair 1 is correctly matched. (ii) The Sushira Vadya or Aerophones- Wind instruments. So, pair 2 is not correctly matched. (iii) The Avanaddha Vadya or Membranophones- Percussion instruments. So, pair 3 is correctly matched.
(iv) The Ghana Vadya or Idiophones- Solid instruments which do not require tuning. So, pair 4 is not correctly matched.
Therefore, the answer is b.