1. With reference to Directive Principles of State Policy, consider the following statements: (1) They contain certain rights that individuals should enjoy apart from the Fundamental Rights. (2) They exhort the government to do certain things which ensure the well-being of the society. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? (a) 1 only (b) 2 only (c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2 Ans: (c) Explanation: The Constitution lays down certain Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP), which though not justiciable, are 'fundamental in governance of the country', and it is the duty of the State to apply these principles in making laws. The chapter on Directive Principles lists mainly three things: ● the goals and objectives that we as a society should adopt; ● certain rights that individuals should enjoy apart from the Fundamental Rights; and ● certain policies that the government should adopt. Hence, statement 1 is correct. DPSP has a positive notion in the sense that it exhorts the government to do certain things for the well-being of the society. While Fundamental Rights restrain the government from doing certain things. Hence, statement 2 is correct. Source: Class XI NCERT- Indian Constitution at Work- Chapter 2; P.N.43,44 2. Regarding 'Rights in a Democracy', Rights are claims of a person over: (1) the Government (2) the Society (3) other fellow beings (4) the Judiciary Which of the combinations given above are correct? (a) 1, 2 and 3 only (b) 2, 3 and 4 only (c) 1, 3 and 4 only (d) 1, 2, 3 and 4 Ans: (a) Explanation: Rights are claims of a person over other fellow beings, over the society and over the government. All of us want to live happily, without fear and without being subjected to degraded treatment. For this we expect others to behave in such a way that does not harm us or hurt us. Equally, our actions should not also harm or hurt others. So, a right is possible when you make a claim that is equally possible for others. Hence, statement 3 is correct. Just because we claim something it does not become our right. It must be recognised by the society we live in. Rights acquire meaning only in society. Every society makes certain rules to regulate our conduct. They tell us what is right and what is wrong. What is recognised by the society as rightful becomes the basis of rights. Thus, statement 2 is correct. When the socially recognized claims are written into laws, they acquire real force. Otherwise they remain merely as natural or moral rights. Thus, statement 1 is correct. Judiciary is the protector of rights of the citizens and does not claim rights. Constitution has provisioned for independence of judiciary and power of judicial review to protect rights of the citizens. Thus, statement 4 is incorrect. Hence, answer is (a). Source: Chapter 6: Democratic Politics-I (Class 9th); Page 99 (Rights in a Democracy) 3. Through which of the following ways the Legislature in Indian parliamentary system ensures 'Executive accountability'? (1) Deliberation and discussions on Budget (2) Approval or removal of laws (3) Coalition governments (4) No Confidence Motions (5) Office of the Speaker of Lok Sabha Select the correct answer using the code given below: (a) 1, 2 and 5 only (b) 2, 3 and 4 only (c) 1, 2 and 4 only (d) 1, 2, 3 and 4 Ans: (c) Explanation: The Legislature in parliamentary system ensures Executive accountability at various stages: policy making, implementation of law or policy and during and post implementation stage. The Legislature does this using a variety of devices such as Deliberation and discussion on Annual Budget; important legislations, Approval or Refusal of law, Financial control, No Confidence Motion etc. Hence, statements 1, 2, 4 are correct. Coalition governments and office of the Speaker of the Lok Sabha act as facilitatory mechanism or means for enforcing effective Legislative control over Executive but they are not stages per se. Hence, statements 3, 5 are incorrect. Source: 11th NCERT Indian Constitution at Work; Page no. 115,116,117. 4. M atch List-I with List-II and select the correct answer using the code given below: List-I : List-II A. Secularism : 1. India is a multi-lingual federation B. Universal suffrage : 2. Mutual exclusion of state and religion C. Federalism : 3. Every adult allowed to vote Codes A B C (a) 1 2 3 (b) 1 3 2 (c) 2 3 1 (d) 3 2 1 Ans: (c) Explanation: Statement 1: Secularism means mutual exclusion of state and religion; which means religion and state must be strictly separated. Statement 2: Adult franchise means that every adult has right to vote. The Assembly has adopted the principle of adult franchise with an abundant faith in the common man and the ultimate success of democratic rule and in the full belief that the introduction of democratic government on the basis of adult suffrage will promote the well- being of its citizens. Statement 3: Although the Constitution did not originally envisage this, India is now a multi-lingual federation. Each major linguistic group is politically recognised and all are treated as equals. Example: Telangana, Tamil Nadu and so on. Source: Class 11th NCERT Indian Constitution at Work; chapter 10, page 229,230,232. 5. Which of the following provisions provided in the Constitution of India ensure independence of the Judiciary? (1) The Parliament plays no role in the appointment of Judges (2) Contempt of Court (3) Security of tenure (4) Parliamentary Control over Judicial Finances Select the correct answer using the code given below: (a) 1, 2 and 3 only (b) 2, 3 and 4 only (c) 1, 3 and 4 only (d) 1, 2, 3 and 4 Ans: (a) Explanation: Statement 1 is correct. The Parliament is not involved in the process of appointment of judges. Political opinions of the person or his/her political loyalty is not the criteria for appointments to Judiciary. Statement 2 is correct. The Judiciary has the power to penalize those who are found guilty of contempt of court. This authority of the court is seen as an effective protection to the judges from unfair criticism. Statement 3 is correct. Security of tenure ensures that judges can function without fear or favour. The Constitution prescribes a very difficult procedure for removal of judges under Article 124(4); Impeachment of Judges. Statement 4 is incorrect. The Parliament does not control expenses of Judiciary. The salaries and allowances of Judges and other administrative expenses are charged on the Consolidated Fund not subject to vote in the Legislature. Source: 11th NCERT, Indian Constitution at Work, Chapter 6: Judiciary, Pp 125-126.