1. Consider the following statements with respect to ‘Basic Structure of the Constitution’: (1) It is about respecting the letter of the Constitution more than the spirit. (2) It is an invention of the Indian Judiciary. (3) The doctrine of basic structure was invented in the ‘Minerva Mills Case (1980) for the first time. Which of the statements given above are incorrect? (a) 1 and 2 only (b) 2 and 3 only (c) 1 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3 Ans: (c) Explanation: Statement 1 is incorrect: The Judiciary, in its famous Kesavananda ruling turned to the spirit of the Constitution rather than its letter. Statement 2 is correct: In Indian Constitution, there is no mention of the term ‘basic structure’ of the Constitution. In this sense, the ‘basic structure’ theory is the invention of the Judiciary. The Court concluded that in reading a text or document, we must respect the intent behind that document. A mere text of the law is less important than the social circumstances and aspirations that have produced that law or document. Statement 3 is incorrect: After the Supreme Court gave the ruling in the Kesavananda case some attempts were made by the Executive organ asking the Court to reconsider its ruling. When these failed, the 42nd amendment 1976 was made to the Constitution and parliamentary supremacy was asserted. But the Court again repeated its earlier stand in the Minerva Mills case (1980). Thus, first time the doctrine of basic structure was invented in Kesavananda Bharati Case 1973 and not Minerva Mills Case (1980). Source: NCERT Indian Constitution at work chapter 9, page no- 211 2. The 74th Amendment Act dealt with urban local bodies or Nagarpalikas. The Census of India defines an urban areas as having: (1) A minimum population of 5000. (2) At least 75 per cent of male working population engaged in non-agricultural occupations. (3) A density of population of at least 400 persons per sq km. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? (a) 1 only (b) 1 and 2 only (c) 2 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3 Ans: (d) Explanation: The census of India 2011, defines an urban area as having: (i) A minimum population of 5000; (ii) At least 75 % of male working population engaged in non-agricultural occupations and (iii) A density of population of at least 400 persons per sq. km. As per Census 2011; nearly 31.16% of India’s population lives in urban areas. Hence all statements are correct. Source: 11th NCERT Indian Constitution at Work; Page- 187. 3. A direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal is termed as: (a) Initiative (b) Plebiscite (c) Referendum (d) Recall Ans: (c) Explanation: On many issues, our elected representatives argue, negotiate, and make a law, but sometimes ‘a proposed legislation is referred to the electorate for settlement by their direct votes’, which is called as Referendum. A referendum is usually a yes or no question. This may be adoption of a new constitution, a law or a specific governmental policy. Referendum, Recall, Plebiscite and Initiative are tools of direct democracy which is different from representative democracy where people vote for representatives who then enact policy initiatives. Initiative is a method by means of which the people can propose a bill to the legislature for enactment. Recall is a method by means of which the voters can remove a representative or an officer before the expiry of his term, when he fails to discharge his duties properly. Plebiscite is a method of obtaining the opinion of people on any issue of public importance. It is generally used to solve the territorial disputes. Source: Democratic Politics-I, NCERT –Page no 19. 4. Consider the following statements: (1) American federalism shows constitutional symmetry by granting equal seats to States in the Senate. (2) Indian Federalism is constitutionally asymmetric where Central Government has unique relationship with the States or has granted special status to some of the States. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? (a) 1 only (b) 2 only (c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2 Answer: (c) Explanation: Statements 1 and 2 are correct. American Federalism shows constitutional symmetry as it has granted equal seats (2 each for 50 states/units) to all States in 100-member Senate. To meet specific needs and requirements of its subunits, Indian Constitution has allowed unique relationship of the Central Government with the States (as per article 370 Jammu and Kashmir is governed by its own constitution) and allowed some of the States to have special status. (Nagaland under article 371A) Source: NCERT class 11th: Indian Constitution at Work; page no.232 and 233. 5. With reference to the ‘Reservation of constituency in Indian electoral politics’, which of the following statements is/are correct? (1) The Indian Constitution provides for reservation of seats for the SCs, STs and OBCs in the Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assemblies (2) Number of reserved constituencies is determined on the basis of 1971 Census. (3) The reserved constituencies are determined by Delimitation Commission. (4) The next delimitation exercise is due in 2020. Select the correct answer using the code given below: (a) 3 only (b) 2 and 3 only (c) 2 and 4 only (d) 1, 2 and 3 only Answer: (a) Explanation: Statement 1 is incorrect. Constituencies in the Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assemblies have reservation only for SCs and STs, it doesn’t extend to OBCs. Statement 2 is incorrect. Number of reserved seats is determined on basis of most recent census, at time of formation of Delimitation Commission. For e.g. presently number of reserved constituencies are determined by 2001 census as Delimitation Commission was formed in 2002. Statement 3 is correct. The reserved constituencies are determined by Delimitation Commission. 31 Prelim IAS Test Series (2018) – GS Test 1 (18.11.2018) NCERTs - Indian Polity and Geography Statement 4 is incorrect. The next delimitation exercise is due by 2026. The ban on readjustment was extended for 25 years from year 2000 up to year 2026 by 84th Constitutional Amendment Act of 2001. Source: Indian Constitution at Work, Class 11(NCERT), page no 65.