1. Which of the following statements is / are correct regarding the Maternity Benefit (Amendment) Act, 2017?
Pregnant women are entitled for three months pre-delivery and three months post-delivery paid leave.
Enterprises with creches must allow the mother minimum six creche visits daily.
Women with two children get reduced entitlements.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 only
(c) 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
S1: The Maternity Benefit (Amendment) Act 2017 provides for 26 weeks paid maternity leave for women employees. The maternity leave can be availed 8 weeks before the expected date of delivery. So, S1 is wrong.
S2: Every establishment with more than 50 employees to provide for crèche facilities for working mothers and such mothers will be permitted to make four visits during working hours to look after and feed the child in the crèche. So, S2 is wrong.
S3: Women, who are expecting after having 2 children, get a reduced 12 weeks paid maternity leave. So, S3 is correct.
2. Which one of the following suggested that the Governor should be an eminent person from outside the State and should be a detached figure without intense political links or should not have taken part in politics in the recent past?
(a) First Administrative Reforms Commission (1966)
(b) Rajamannar Committee (1969)
(c) Sarkaria Commission (1983)
(d) National Commission to Review the Working of the Constitution (2000)
Justification: Straightforward question.
The ‘Sarkaria Commission’ recommended that the Governor should be an eminent person from outside the state and should be a detached figure without intense political links and that he should not have taken part in politics in recent past and should not be a member of the ruling party.
3. With reference to the Constitution of India, consider the following statements:
No High Court shall have the jurisdiction to declare any central law to be constitutionally invalid.
An amendment to the Constitution of India cannot be called into question by the Supreme Court of India.
Which of the statements given above is / are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Justification: Straightforward question. Both the SC and HCs can question the validity of a constitutional amendment or a central law
4. In the context of polity, which one of the following would you accept as the most appropriate definition of liberty?
(a) Protection against the tyranny of political rulers
(b) Absence of restraint
(c) Opportunity to do whatever one likes
(d) Opportunity to develop oneself fully.
Justification: Liberty can be seen from two perspectives – negative and positive.
Negative liberty is the absence of obstacles, barriers or constraints. Positive liberty is the possibility of acting — or the fact of acting — in such a way as to take control of one’s life and realize one’s fundamental purposes. One may surmise that the purpose of ensuring that one has no obstacles is to realize one’s full potential.
Therefore, option B only covers part of the definition of liberty, whereas option D covers it fully. Option A is also a partial definition and has a connotation more towards fundamental rights rather than liberty. One can be protected from tyranny by rule of law, but that does not by itself guarantee liberty.
5. With reference to the Constitution of India, prohibitions or limitations or provisions contained in ordinary laws cannot act as prohibitions or limitations on the constitutional powers under Article 142.
It could mean which one of the following?
(a) The decisions taken by the Election Commission of India while discharging its duties cannot be challenged in any court of law.
(b) The Supreme Court of India is not constrained in the exercise of its powers by laws made by the Parliament.
(c) In the event of grave financial crisis in the country, the President of India can declare Financial Emergency without the counsel from the Cabinet.
(d) State Legislatures cannot make laws on certain matters without the concurrence of Union Legislature.
Justification: As per Article 142, “The Supreme Court in the exercise of its jurisdiction may pass such decree or make such order as is necessary for doing complete justice in any cause or matter pending before it, and any decree so passed or orders so made shall be enforceable throughout the territory of India in such manner as may be prescribed by or under any law made by Parliament and, until provision in that behalf is so made, in such manner as the President may by order prescribe”