1. Consider the following :
1. Right to education.
2. Right to equal access to public service.
3. Right to food.
Which of the above is/are Human Right/Human Rights under “Universal Declaration of Human Rights’’ ?
(a) 1 only
(b) 1 and 2
(c) 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
(d) With reference to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights: Article 25 says everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control. Article 21(2) says– everyone has the right of equal access to public service in his country. Article 26(1) says–Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages.
2. With reference to consumers’ rights/privileges under the provisions of law in India, which of the following statements is/are correct?
1. Consumers are empowered to take samples for food testing.
2. When a consumer files a complaint in any consumer forum, no fee is required to be paid.
3. In case of death of a consumer, his/her legal heir can file a complaint in the consumer forum on his/her behalf.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3
(c) 1 and 3
(d) 1, 2 and 3
(c) Consumers are empowered to take samples for food testing. In case of death of a consumer his/her legal heir can file a complaint in the consumer forum on his /her behalf.
3. The power of the Supreme Court of India to decide disputes between the Centre and the States falls under its
(a) advisory jurisdiction
(b) appellate jurisdiction
(c) original jurisdiction
(d) writ jurisdiction
(c) The original jurisdiction of supreme court includes disputes between
(i) The centre and one or more states; or
(ii) The centre and any state or states on one side and one or more states on the other; or
(iii) Between two or more states.
In the above federal disputes, the supreme court has exclusive original jurisdiction. Meaning, no other count can decide such disputes.
4. With reference to the ‘Gram Nyayalaya Act’, which of the following statements is/are correct?
1. As per the Act, Gram Nyayalayas can hear only civil cases and not criminal cases.
2. The Act allows local social activists as mediators/reconciliators.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
(b) Each gram Nyayalaya is a court of Judicial Magistrate of the first class and its presiding officer is appointed by the state government in consultation with the High court. Gram Nyayalaya Act; 2008 came into force of Oct, 2, 2009. The objective of this Act is to Provide inexpensive justice to people in rural areas at their doorsteps.
• Gram Nyayalaya try criminal cases, civil suits, claims or disputes which are specified in the First Schedule and the Second Schedule of the Gram Nyayalaya Act the Act.The Gram Nyayalaya are supposed to try to settle the disputes as far as possible by bringing about conciliation between the parties and for this purpose, it can make use of the appointed conciliators.
• Reference- Page no. 601 of India year book 2016, under heading Judiciary it says- Panchayat Courts also function in some states under various names like Nyaya Panchayat, Panchayat Adalat, Gram Kachehri, etc., to decide civil and criminal disputes of petty and local nature. That means first statement is wrong.
• Under this act, District court with consultation of DM, prepares panel of social workers to act as councilors. Hence 2nd statement is right. Ref: Original Act Page no 7; http://doj.gov.in
5. In India, Judicial Review implies
(a) the power of the Judiciary to pronounce upon the constitutionality of laws and executive orders.
(b) the power of the Judiciary to question the wisdom of the laws enacted by the Legislatures.
(c) the power of the Judiciary to review all the legislative enactments before they are assented to by the President.
(d) the power of the Judiciary to review its own judgements given earlier in similar or different cases.
(a) New NCERT, Std. 11, Indian Constitution at Work, Chapter-6 Judiciary, Page 139
• Judicial review means the power of SC or HC to examine the constitutionality of any law. So, "A" is the most fitting option.