1. Which of the following diseases can be diagnosed with the help of Serological tests? 1. Measles 2. Polio 3. HIV 4. Rheumatoid Arthritis 5. Leucopenia Select the correct answer using the code given below: a. 1, 2 and 4 only b. 1, 4 and 5 only c. 1, 2, 3, and 4 only d. 3 and 5 only Answer: c Explanation: Serologic tests are blood tests that look for antibodies in the blood. They can involve several laboratory techniques. Different types of serologic tests are used to diagnose various disease conditions. Serologic tests have one thing in common. They all focus on proteins made by the body’s immune system. The process for having the test is the same regardless of which technique the laboratory uses during serologic testing. Serological testing is particularly helpful in the diagnosis of certain bacterial, parasitic, and viral diseases, including Rocky Mountain spotted fever, influenza, measles, polio, yellow fever, and infectious mononucleosis.
It is also useful in the detection of autoantibodies (harmful antibodies that attack components of the body) that are involved in autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis. As a practical mass screening tool, serological testing has proved valuable in the detection of diseases such as syphilis, HIV/AIDS, and epidemic and pandemic infectious diseases (e.g., influenza and coronavirus disease). Therefore, the correct answer is c. Antigens are substances that provoke a response from the immune system. They’re usually too small to see with the naked eye. They can enter the human body through the mouth, through broken skin, or through the nasal passages. Antigens that commonly affect people include the following: ∙ bacteria
The immune system defends against antigens by producing antibodies. These antibodies are particles that attach to the antigens and deactivate them. When your doctor tests your blood, they can identify the type of antibodies and antigens that are in your blood sample, and identify the type of infection you have.
Sometimes the body mistakes its own healthy tissue for outside invaders and produces unnecessary antibodies. This is known as an autoimmune disorder. Serologic testing can detect these antibodies and help your doctor diagnose an autoimmune disorder.
Antibodies are diverse. So, there are various tests for detecting the presence of different types of antibodies. These include:
∙ An agglutination assay shows whether antibodies exposed to certain antigens will cause particle clumping.
∙ A precipitation test shows whether the antigens are similar by measuring for the presence of antibody in body fluids.
∙ The Western blot test identifies the presence of antimicrobial antibodies in your blood by their reaction with target antigens. 2. With reference to the Plasma Therapy, recently in the news, consider the following statements: 1. It directly stimulates the patient’s immune system to start creating their antibodies. 2. There is a risk of transmission of HIV but not allergic reactions. 3. It has been used in the treatment of measles. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? a. 2 only b. 1 and 3 only c. 1 and 2 only d. 3 only Answer: d Explanation: Plasma therapy is a medical procedure that uses the blood of a recovered patient to create antibodies on those infected individuals. Plasma therapy does not directly stimulate a patient’s immune system to start creating their antibodies. However, the antibodies that exist in the plasma that is being transferred (from a recovered patient) may give a certain level of protection to the patient (in whom the plasma is being transferred). So, statement 1 is not correct. In plasma therapy, there is a risk of transmission of allergic reactions, which can lead to lung damage/injury. Further, the risk of transmission of infections including HIV, Hepatitis B and C, is also present, but all known viruses are tested before transfusing the plasma. So, statement 2 is not correct. Plasma therapy has been used to treat diseases like Ebola virus, diphtheria, pertussis, Spanish flu, measles, MERS-COV, H1N1 and many other viral and auto-immune illnesses. So, statement 3 is correct. Therefore, the correct answer is d 3. Consider the following statements with reference to Boreal Summer Intra-Seasonal Oscillation (BSISO): 1. It is the movement of convection (heat) from the Indian Ocean to the western Pacific Ocean every 10-50 days during the monsoon. 2. It is one of the most prominent sources of short-term climate variability in the global monsoon system. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? (a) 1 only (b) 2 only (c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2 Answer: c Explanation: The Boreal summer intra-seasonal oscillation (BSISO) of the Asian summer monsoon (ASM) is one of the most prominent sources of short-term climate variability in the global monsoon system. Compared with the related Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) it is more complex in nature, with prominent northward propagation and variability extending much further from the equator. BSISO is the movement of convection (heat) from the Indian Ocean to the western Pacific Ocean roughly every 10-50 days during the monsoon (June-September). They represent the monsoon’s ‘active’ and ‘break’ periods, in which weeks of heavy rainfall give way to brilliant sunshine before starting all over again. The active phase also enhances monsoon winds and hence the surface waves. The active phases of BSISO occur between June and August which are the monsoon summer months. Wave forecast advisories based on the BSISO would be more useful for efficient coastal and marine management. So, statement 1 is correct. BSISO of the Asian summer monsoon (ASM) is one of the most prominent sources of short-term climate variability in the global monsoon system. Compared with the related Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) it is more complex in nature, with prominent northward propagation and variability extending much further from the equator. So, statement 2 is correct. Therefore, the correct answer is c. 4. With reference to the Covid-19, which of the following types of vaccines are being developed by various countries? 1. RNA vaccines 2. DNA vaccines 3. Non-replicating viral vector vaccines 4. Inactivated vaccines Select the correct answer using the code given below: a. 1 and 4 only b. 1, 3 and 4 only c. 2 and 3 only d. 1, 2, 3 and 4 Answer: d Explanation: RNA vaccines use messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules that tell cells what protein to build. In this case, the mRNA is coded to tell cells to build the molecular structure on the surface of SARS-Cov-2, which the immune system will recognise and build antibodies against. Moderna, in collaboration with the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, has worked on an mRNA vaccine that is expected to start phase III trials this month. So, (1) is correct. DNA vaccines use genetically engineered DNA molecules that are coded with the antigen against which the immune response is to be built. Inovio Pharmaceuticals, in collaboration with the International Vaccine Institute, has a DNA vaccine INO-4800, that is already in phase I trials. So, (2) is correct. The SARS-CoV-2 virus uses the spike on its surface, the spike protein, to enter and infect cells and multiply. A non-replicating viral vector vaccine uses a weakened version of a different virus to carry this Covid-19 spike protein into the body, but it is modified so that it cannot replicate. The University of Oxford, in collaboration with AstraZeneca, is testing one such vaccine using the ChAdOx1 virus, a weakened version of a common cold virus that causes infections in chimpanzees. So, (3) is correct. Covaxin is an inactivated vaccine, that is made by using particles of the Covid-19 virus that were killed, making them unable to infect or replicate. So, (4) is correct. Therefore, the correct answer is d. Which of the following statements is/are correct regarding Styrene and Polystyrene? 1. Styrene is a flammable liquid which is found in fruits and vegetables. 2. Polystyrene is used in the manufacture of refrigerators and automotive parts. Select the correct answer using the code given below: a. 1 only b. 2 only c. Both 1 and 2 d. Neither 1 nor 2 Answer: c Explanation: Styrene is an organic compound with the formula C8H8 and is a derivative of benzene (C6H6). It is a flammable liquid stored that is stored in factories as a liquid but evaporates easily. Styrene is found in vehicle exhaust, cigarette smoke, and in natural foods like fruits and vegetables. So, statement 1 is correct. Styrene is the main raw material for the synthesis of polystyrene, or (C8H8)n. Polystyrene, in turn, is a versatile plastic that is used to make parts of various appliances such as refrigerators or micro ovens; automotive parts; and parts of electronics such as computers; and also to manufacture disposable cups and in food packaging. So, statement 2 is correct. Therefore, the correct answer is c.