1. Ten Principles of Bandung, recently in news is related to
(a) North Atlantic Treaty Organization
(b) Non-Aligned Movement
(c) Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership
(d) Financial Action Task Force
Answer: (b) Explanation: The Vice President of India attended the 18th Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) summit at Baku in Azerbaijan. The summit was based on a theme, Upholding he Bandung Principles to ensure concerted and adequate response to the challenges of the contemporary world . NAM ha i origin in he A ia-Africa Conference 1955, held in Bandung, Indonesnia. Ten Principle of Bandung", were adopted a he 1955 Conference as guiding principles of NAM. Therefore, the correct answer is (b).
2. With reference to Adapt No : A Global Call for Leadership on Climate Resilience Report, recently in the news, which of the following statements is/are correct?
(1) It was adopted at the COP 25 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change held in Madrid.
(2) It has been developed by the office of the United Nations Secretary-General and the World Bank, in partnership, as an attempt to finalise the Paris Agreement.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 and 2
Answer: (d) Explanation : Adapt No : A Global Call for Leadership on Climate Resilience Report , was adopted at UNCCD COP 14 held in New Delhi in 2019. So, statement (1) is not correct.
The Global Commission on Adaptation has written it. The Commission was led by the former United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon, Microsoft Corp founder Bill Gates and former World Bank Chief Executive Kristalina Georgieva. So, statement (2) is not correct. The Report focuses on making recommendations in key sectors: food security, the natural environment, water, cities and urban areas, infrastructure, disaster risk management, and finance. Therefore, the correct answer is (d).
3. Consider the following statements regarding the Saptamatrika Cult:
(1) They are a group of seven female deities personifying the energy of their respective consorts.
(2) They are considered as goddesses of prosperity and bountifulness.
(3) This Cult is famous not only in Hinduism but also in Buddhism.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 1 and 3 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer: (b) Explanation: Matrikas are a group of mother goddesses who are always depicted together in Hinduism. The Matrikas are usually depicted in a group of seven called Saptamatrikas. They are Brahmani (wife of Brahma), Maheshvari (wife of Shiva), Kaumari (wife of Kumara), Vaishnavi (wife of Vishnu), Varahi (wife of Varaha, an avatar of Vishnu), Indrani (wife of Indra), and Chamunda, or Yami (wife of Yama). In South India, Saptamatrika worship is prevalent, whereas the Ashtamatrika are venerated in Nepal. So, statement (1) is correct. In most early references, the Matrikas are described as having inauspicious qualities and often described as dangerous. The Matrikas are fearsome goddesses, abductors and eaters of children; that is, they were emblematic of childhood pestilence, fever, starvation, and disease. They were propitiated in order to avoid those ills that carried off so many children before they reached adulthood. They come to play a protective role in later mythology, although some of their inauspicious and wild characteristics persist in these accounts. So, statement (2) is not correct. The Matrikas function both as city protectors and individual protectors in Hinduism and Buddhism. Since their role is vital in Shakti cult as well as in Tantricism, saptamatrikas have gained cult status in both Hinduism and Buddhism. So, statement (3) is correct. Therefore, the correct answer is (b).
Archaeologists in India recently unearthed the earliest Sanskrit inscription found in Southern India in India's Chebrolu village in Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh. It was issued by Satavahana dynasty's last king Vijaya that dates back to 207 AD and refers to the Saptamatrika Cult. It records the construction of a temple and includes a description of a few images on the southern side of the temple. Earlier references of Saptamatrika worship were noticed in Kadamba copper plates and the Chalukyas as well as Eastern Chalukya copper plates dating approximately 400 AD. However, this new finding takes the archaeologists almost 200 years ago.
4. Consider the following statements regarding UNESCO World Heritage Sites in India:
(1) There are all kinds of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in India, including cultural sites, natural sites as well as mixed-criteria site.
(2) All such designated sites are included in the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) Must See List.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Answer: (a) Explanation: The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage Sites are famous places of cultural or natural heritage as described in the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, established in 1972. There are 38 UNESCO World Heritage Sites in India, which includes 30 cultural sites, seven natural sites and one mixed-criteria site. So, statement (1) is correct. The ASI has identified 138 monuments as "Must See Monuments". The "Must See" list features outstanding Indian monuments and archaeological sites, under the protection of the ASI, including those that feature on UNESCO's World Heritage List. Such monuments and sites display exceptionality in terms of arts and architecture, planning and design, are a unique testimony to the civilisation in the past and are outstanding types of buildings showing exemplary engineering skills. India is home to 38 World Heritage Sites, with 22 of those under the protection of the ASI. Thus, not all the UNESCO World Heritage Sites are in the ASI Must See List. So, statement (2) is not correct. Therefore, the correct answer is (a).
5. Which of the following statements is correct regarding Bali Jatra, a famous cultural festival in Odisha?
(a) It is celebrated by sacrificing (bali) various animals because the roots of the festival go back to tribal cults in Odisha.
(b) It is celebrated to commemorate the killing of King Bali b Vishnu s Vamanavatara in Hinduism.
(c) It coincides with the festival of Balipratipada during Diwali.
(d) It is held to mark travel of mariners to the island of Bali in South Asia in the ancient times.
Answer: (d) Explanation: Bali Jatra means A Voyage to Bali. It is Asia's largest open trade fair. This festival is held in Odisha to mark the day when ancient Sadhabas (Odia mariners) would set sail to distant lands of Bali, as well as Java Sumatra, Borneo, and Sri Lanka for trade and cultural expansion. On this day, people of Odisha gather near banks of Mahanadi, Brahmani river, other river banks, ponds, water tanks and seashores to float miniature toy boats, made of coloured paper, dried banana tree barks, and cork, as a symbolic gesture of their ancestors' voyage. Bali Jatra bears testimony to the rich maritime legacy of ancient Odisha. Therefore, the correct answer is (d).