1. The Asia Pacific Trade and Investment Report - 2019, recently in the news, is published by which of the following agencies?
(a) United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and Pacific
(b) United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) Neither (a) nor (b)
Answer: (c) Explanation: The Asia-Pacific Trade and Investment Report (APTIR) is a biennial publication prepared jointly by the Trade, Investment and Innovation Division of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific and United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) to provide insights into the impact of recent and emerging developments in trade and foreign direct investment on countries' abilities to meet the challenges of achieving sustainable development. Therefore, the correct answer is (c). The theme of 2019 APTIR is Navigating Non-tariff Measures (NTMs) towards Sustainable Development. It evaluates the impacts of NTMs on trade and investment, based on both quantitative analysis and private-sector surveys.
2. Consider the following statements ith reference to Carbon Markets :
(1) Carbon markets allow buying and selling of carbon emission reductions, or carbon credits.
(2) It is being set up for the first time through the Paris Agreement.
Which of the statements given above is/are not correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Answer: (b) Explanation: Carbon markets are one of the tools to tackle the accumulation of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere, i.e. the climate change problem. Carbon markets allow buying and selling of carbon emission reductions, or carbon credits to reduce global emissions. For e.g. It took about a tonne of steel to build a car, and for producing a tonne of steel, it emits two tonnes of carbon dioxide. At current prices, this will cost a steel producer in India roughly 1 lakh. Other companies that can avoid CO2 emissions at little cost (below 1 lakh) will sell their rights to those companies that have higher emission reduction costs. Another example, if a country has committed to reducing its emissions by 100 tCO2e (tonnes of CO2 equivalent), but reduces 110 tCO2e, it would be able to sell the extra 10tCO2e reduced to another country, which has not managed to meet its target. So, statement (1) is correct. Carbon markets also existed under the Kyoto Protocol, which is being replaced by the Paris Agreement. The provisions relating to setting up a new carbon market are described in Article 6 of the Paris Agreement. So, statement (2) is not correct. Therefore, the answer is (b).
3. Consider the following statements:
(1) The Report titled The 2019 Pollution and Health Metrics: Global, Regional and Country Analysis as gi en b the Global Alliance on Health and Pollution (GAHP).
(2) As per the data of the above Report, India is the only country that features in the top
10 in all three lists.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Answer: (c) Explanation: Recently , a report was published The 2019 Pollution and Health Metrics: Global, Regional and Co n r Anal i b he Global Alliance on Health and Pollution (GAHP) was released, and it has provided a ranking of pollution deaths on a global, regional and country level. The Report highlights that pollution is the most substantial environmental threat to health responsible in 2017 for 15% of all deaths globally, and 275 million Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALY) which is a measure of overall disease burden, expressed as the number of years lost due to ill-health, disability or early death). So, statement (1) is correct. India has seen increasing industrial and vehicular pollution from urban growth, while poor sanitation and contaminated indoor air in low-income communities. The report includes three lists on pollution-induced deaths. India is the only country that features in the top 10 in all three lists.
Annual Premature Pollution related deaths: India accounts for the highest number of such deaths in the world- about 2.3 million, followed by China with about 1.8 million. Annual Premature Air Pollution related deaths: India is at second position with 1.240 million deaths, very close to China with 1.243 million deaths. Pollution deaths per 1,00,000 people: India ranks tenth with 174 deaths per 1 lakh people. So, statement (2) is correct. Therefore, the correct answer is (b).
4. IBM GRAF , sometimes in the news, is related to which of the following applications?
(a) Temperature Forecasting
(b) Weather Forecasting
(c) Weed Control
(d) Soil Testing
Answer: (b) Explanation: International technology company IBM plans to make a high-resolution weather forecasting model that will also rely on user-generated data to improve the accuracy of forecasts available in India. IBM GRAF (Global High-Resolution Atmospheric Forecasting System), is a forecasting system, which can generate forecasts at a resolution of 3 kilometres. This is a significantly higher resolution than the 12-kilometre models used by the India Meteorological Department to generate forecasts. These weather forecast techniques rely on dynamic modelling and collect a trove of atmospheric and ocean data, crunch it in supercomputers and generate forecasts over desired time-frames- three days, weekly or fortnightly. For its forecasts, IBM relies on a global network of sensors - automatic weather station, data buoys and barometric pressure data from cellphones of users who have downloaded the application. Weather forecasts will be available to individuals for free download and can be used by farmers. The forecast engine will also be used to provide custom forecasts for energy companies, consumer brands, insurance businesses, and satellite imagery analysts. Therefore, the correct answer is option (b).