The cooperative and vibrant nature of Indian federalism and the challenges faced by it.
Quotes that can be used for introduction
“…the smaller the number of individuals composing a majority, and the smaller the compass within which they are placed, the more easily will they concert and execute their plans of oppression. Extend the sphere, and you take in a greater variety of parties and interests; you make it less probable that a majority of the whole will have a common motive to invade the rights of other citizens” (from The Federalist Papers )
“A federal relationship would be a kind of confession of first principles or covenant that would allow states to bind themselves together substantially without entirely subsuming their sundry identities.” (George Grant, The Magdeburg Confession)
“Federalism is more than a form of government. It's also a system of values that allows different people in diverse communities to live and work together in harmony for the good of all”( Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien )
Meaning of the statement
Federalism is best understood as a method of promoting self-rule and shared rule and of balancing the interests of a nation with that of its regions. Typically, this is done for a dual purpose—that of limiting the possibility of a tyranny of the majority, and of generating strength through union. A durable federal design thus aims at the contradictory goals of reconciling freedom with cohesion, and a diversity of political cultures and identities with effective collective action.
Cooperative federalism is a model of intergovernmental relations that recognizes the overlapping functions of the national and state governments.
Thus , it is clear from above that for making contradictories goal of federalism, the upholding of tenants of federalism is must.
However, in doing so there are challenges that is to be highlighted.
In a vast country like ours, the spirit of cooperative federalism should guide the relations between the Centre and the States on the one hand, among different States and between the States and the Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) and Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) on the other.
The essence of cooperative federalism is that the Centre and the State Governments should be guided by the broader national concerns of using the available resources for the benefit of the people.
Co-operative federalism encourages the Government at different levels to take advantage of a large national market, diverse and rich natural resources and the potential of human capabilities in all parts of the country and from all sections of the society for building a prosperous nation.
Co-operative federalism makes it possible to raise all the available resources by the Government at different levels in a co-ordinated way and channel them for use for the common good of the people. This requires a harmonious relationship and co-operative spirit between the Centre and the States and among the States themselves. While a healthy competition among the States for evolving efficient and socially desirable policies and programmes is welcome, any competition which nullifies each other's advantages in development and erodes the resource base of the States should be avoided.
Co-operative federalism is intended to ensure a minimum bundle of basic services and a nationally acceptable level of living for all the people of the country.
Body and various dimension
Cooperative and Vibrant nature of Indian federalism
Three phase of development/evolution of cooperative and vibrant federalism in india
1st phase : write about the integrative aspect (time of Independence to the mid- 1960s)
The main role that the federal system and process have played in transforming a mere collection of disjointed British-administered territories and former princely states, set free to follow their destiny by their British 'allies' at the end of colonial rule, and the Indian provinces into an effective 'Union of States'.
That how The INC, which had already embraced the federal principle back in the 1920’s by organizing itself on the basis of Provincial Congress Committees based on linguistic regions, institutionalized the principle of consultation, accommodation, and consensus through a delicate balancing of the factions within the 'Congress System/parliamentary system '
Show the co option and co-optation of local and regional leaders/ interest in the national power( Kamraj ) and 'observers' from the Centre were sent to mediate between warring factions in the provinces, thus simultaneously ensuring the legitimacy of the provincial power structure in running its own affairs as well as the role of Central mediation.
2nd Phase : ( with the emergence of regional power)
The flexibility of the federal process has made it possible for the state in India to accommodate ethno-national movements in the form of new regions, thus gradually increasing both the number of states and the governability of the Union
3rd Phase : current situation
The interdependence dependence up the state and centre (GST security and tax, international relation state trade and such other part.
Conclude with a optimistic note of cooperative federalism and its future in India.